779 research outputs found

    Biochemical and mutational analysis of EcoRII functional domains reveals evolutionary links between restriction enzymes

    Get PDF
    AbstractThe archetypal Type IIE restriction endonuclease EcoRII is a dimer that has a modular structure. DNA binding studies indicate that the isolated C-terminal domain dimer has an interface that binds a single cognate DNA molecule whereas the N-terminal domain is a monomer that also binds a single copy of cognate DNA. Hence, the full-length EcoRII contains three putative DNA binding interfaces: one at the C-terminal domain dimer and two at each of the N-terminal domains. Mutational analysis indicates that the C-terminal domain shares conserved active site architecture and DNA binding elements with the tetrameric restriction enzyme NgoMIV. Data provided here suggest possible evolutionary relationships between different subfamilies of restriction enzymes

    Chemical mapping of cytosines enzymatically flipped out of the DNA helix

    Get PDF
    Haloacetaldehydes can be employed for probing unpaired DNA structures involving cytosine and adenine residues. Using an enzyme that was structurally proven to flip its target cytosine out of the DNA helix, the HhaI DNA methyltransferase (M.HhaI), we demonstrate the suitability of the chloroacetaldehyde modification for mapping extrahelical (flipped-out) cytosine bases in protein–DNA complexes. The generality of this method was verified with two other DNA cytosine-5 methyltransferases, M.AluI and M.SssI, as well as with two restriction endonucleases, R.Ecl18kI and R.PspGI, which represent a novel class of base-flipping enzymes. Our results thus offer a simple and convenient laboratory tool for detection and mapping of flipped-out cytosines in protein–DNA complexes

    Chemical mapping of cytosines enzymatically flipped out of the DNA helix

    Get PDF
    Haloacetaldehydes can be employed for probing unpaired DNA structures involving cytosine and adenine residues. Using an enzyme that was structurally proven to flip its target cytosine out of the DNA helix, the HhaI DNA methyltransferase (M.HhaI), we demonstrate the suitability of the chloroacetaldehyde modification for mapping extrahelical (flipped-out) cytosine bases in protein–DNA complexes. The generality of this method was verified with two other DNA cytosine-5 methyltransferases, M.AluI and M.SssI, as well as with two restriction endonucleases, R.Ecl18kI and R.PspGI, which represent a novel class of base-flipping enzymes. Our results thus offer a simple and convenient laboratory tool for detection and mapping of flipped-out cytosines in protein–DNA complexes

    How PspGI, catalytic domain of EcoRII and Ecl18kI acquire specificities for different DNA targets

    Get PDF
    Restriction endonucleases Ecl18kI and PspGI/catalytic domain of EcoRII recognize CCNGG and CCWGG sequences (W stands for A or T), respectively. The enzymes are structurally similar, interact identically with the palindromic CC:GG parts of their recognition sequences and flip the nucleotides at their centers. Specificity for the central nucleotides could be influenced by the strength/stability of the base pair to be disrupted and/or by direct interactions of the enzymes with the flipped bases. Here, we address the importance of these contributions. We demonstrate that wt Ecl18kI cleaves oligoduplexes containing canonical, mismatched and abasic sites in the central position of its target sequence CCNGG with equal efficiencies. In contrast, substitutions in the binding pocket for the extrahelical base alter the Ecl18kI preference for the target site: the W61Y mutant prefers only certain mismatched substrates, and the W61A variant cuts exclusively at abasic sites, suggesting that pocket interactions play a major role in base discrimination. PspGI and catalytic domain of EcoRII probe the stability of the central base pair and the identity of the flipped bases in the pockets. This ‘double check’ mechanism explains their extraordinary specificity for an A/T pair in the flipping position

    Tetrameric restriction enzymes: expansion to the GIY-YIG nuclease family

    Get PDF
    The GIY-YIG nuclease domain was originally identified in homing endonucleases and enzymes involved in DNA repair and recombination. Many of the GIY-YIG family enzymes are functional as monomers. We show here that the Cfr42I restriction endonuclease which belongs to the GIY-YIG family and recognizes the symmetric sequence 5′-CCGC/GG-3′ (‘/’ indicates the cleavage site) is a tetramer in solution. Moreover, biochemical and kinetic studies provided here demonstrate that the Cfr42I tetramer is catalytically active only upon simultaneous binding of two copies of its recognition sequence. In that respect Cfr42I resembles the homotetrameric Type IIF restriction enzymes that belong to the distinct PD-(E/D)XK nuclease superfamily. Unlike the PD-(E/D)XK enzymes, the GIY-YIG nuclease Cfr42I accommodates an extremely wide selection of metal-ion cofactors, including Mg2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ and Ca2+. To our knowledge, Cfr42I is the first tetrameric GIY-YIG family enzyme. Similar structural arrangement and phenotypes displayed by restriction enzymes of the PD-(E/D)XK and GIY-YIG nuclease families point to the functional significance of tetramerization

    Central base pair flipping and discrimination by PspGI

    Get PDF
    PspGI is a representative of a group of restriction endonucleases that recognize a pentameric sequence related to CCNGG. Unlike the previously investigated Ecl18kI, which does not have any specificity for the central base pair, PspGI prefers A/T over G/C in its target site. Here, we present a structure of PspGI with target DNA at 1.7 Å resolution. In this structure, the bases at the center of the recognition sequence are extruded from the DNA and flipped into pockets of PspGI. The flipped thymine is in the usual anti conformation, but the flipped adenine takes the normally unfavorable syn conformation. The results of this and the accompanying manuscript attribute the preference for A/T pairs over G/C pairs in the flipping position to the intrinsically lower penalty for flipping A/T pairs and to selection of the PspGI pockets against guanine and cytosine. Our data show that flipping can contribute to the discrimination between normal bases. This adds a new role to base flipping in addition to its well-known function in base modification and DNA damage repair

    Unique mechanism of target recognition by PfoI restriction endonuclease of the CCGG-family.

    Get PDF
    Restriction endonucleases (REs) of the CCGG-family recognize a set of 4-8 bp target sequences that share a common CCGG or CCNGG core and possess PD…D/ExK nuclease fold. REs that interact with 5 bp sequence 5'-CCNGG flip the central N nucleotides and 'compress' the bound DNA to stack the inner base pairs to mimic the CCGG sequence. PfoI belongs to the CCGG-family and cleaves the 7 bp sequence 5'-T|CCNGGA ("|" designates cleavage position). We present here crystal structures of PfoI in free and DNA-bound forms that show unique active site arrangement and mechanism of sequence recognition. Structures and mutagenesis indicate that PfoI features a permuted E…ExD…K active site that differs from the consensus motif characteristic to other family members. Although PfoI also flips the central N nucleotides of the target sequence it does not 'compress' the bound DNA. Instead, PfoI induces a drastic change in DNA backbone conformation that shortens the distance between scissile phosphates to match that in the unperturbed CCGG sequence. Our data demonstrate the diversity and versatility of structural mechanisms employed by restriction enzymes for recognition of related DNA sequences

    DNA synapsis through transient tetramerization triggers cleavage by Ecl18kI restriction enzyme

    Get PDF
    To cut DNA at their target sites, restriction enzymes assemble into different oligomeric structures. The Ecl18kI endonuclease in the crystal is arranged as a tetramer made of two dimers each bound to a DNA copy. However, free in solution Ecl18kI is a dimer. To find out whether the Ecl18kI dimer or tetramer represents the functionally important assembly, we generated mutants aimed at disrupting the putative dimer–dimer interface and analysed the functional properties of Ecl18kI and mutant variants. We show by atomic force microscopy that on two-site DNA, Ecl18kI loops out an intervening DNA fragment and forms a tetramer. Using the tethered particle motion technique, we demonstrate that in solution DNA looping is highly dynamic and involves a transient interaction between the two DNA-bound dimers. Furthermore, we show that Ecl18kI cleaves DNA in the synaptic complex much faster than when acting on a single recognition site. Contrary to Ecl18kI, the tetramerization interface mutant R174A binds DNA as a dimer, shows no DNA looping and is virtually inactive. We conclude that Ecl18kI follows the association model for the synaptic complex assembly in which it binds to the target site as a dimer and then associates into a transient tetrameric form to accomplish the cleavage reaction

    Nucleotide flipping by restriction enzymes analyzed by 2-aminopurine steady-state fluorescence

    Get PDF
    Many DNA modification and repair enzymes require access to DNA bases and therefore flip nucleotides. Restriction endonucleases (REases) hydrolyze the phosphodiester backbone within or in the vicinity of the target recognition site and do not require base extrusion for the sequence readout and catalysis. Therefore, the observation of extrahelical nucleotides in a co-crystal of REase Ecl18kI with the cognate sequence, CCNGG, was unexpected. It turned out that Ecl18kI reads directly only the CCGG sequence and skips the unspecified N nucleotides, flipping them out from the helix. Sequence and structure conservation predict nucleotide flipping also for the complexes of PspGI and EcoRII with their target DNAs (/CCWGG), but data in solution are limited and indirect. Here, we demonstrate that Ecl18kI, the C-terminal domain of EcoRII (EcoRII-C) and PspGI enhance the fluorescence of 2-aminopurines (2-AP) placed at the centers of their recognition sequences. The fluorescence increase is largest for PspGI, intermediate for EcoRII-C and smallest for Ecl18kI, probably reflecting the differences in the hydrophobicity of the binding pockets within the protein. Omitting divalent metal cations and mutation of the binding pocket tryptophan to alanine strongly increase the 2-AP signal in the Ecl18kI–DNA complex. Together, our data provide the first direct evidence that Ecl18kI, EcoRII-C and PspGI flip nucleotides in solution

    Use of green fluorescent protein for the analysis of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions

    Get PDF
    Restriction modification (RM) systems play a crucial role in preventing the entry of foreign DNA into the bacterial cell. The best studied Type I RM system is EcoKI from Escherichia coli K12. Both bacteriophage and conjugative plasmids have developed a variety of strategies to circumvent the host RM system. One such strategy involves the production of antirestriction proteins that mimic a short segment of DNA and efficiently inhibit the RM system. The main aim of this project was to analyse the interaction of EcoKI and its cognate methylase (MTase) with the T7 antirestriction protein, known as overcome classical restriction (Ocr), and various ArdA antirestriction proteins. Currently, there is a paucity of structural data on the complex formed between the Type I system and the antirestriction proteins. The aim of this work was twofold; (i) compare the interaction of MTase with DNA and Ocr and (ii) quantify the strength of interaction between MTase and various ArdA proteins. The MTase was fused to the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) to facilitate determination of the orientation of interaction with DNA and Ocr. Time resolved fluorescence measurements were carried out using the GFP-MTase fusion to determine the fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy decay. These experiments were conducted using a time resolved fluorescence instrument fabricated in-house. The values determined in these experiments were then used to perform fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements with fluorescently labelled DNA or Ocr. These measurements gave information concerning the relative orientation of the MTase with either DNA or Ocr. The GFP-MTase fusion was also used to quantify the strength of interaction with various ArdA proteins. Previous attempts to determine the strength of interaction between MTase and ArdA proteins by employing conventional techniques have been unsuccessful. Therefore, a novel method was developed that exploits the interaction of MTase with a cation exchange medium, which can subsequently be displaced upon binding to ArdA. This method facilitated the determination, for the first time, of a set of binding affinities for the MTase and ArdA interaction
    corecore