40 research outputs found

    A Cross Sectional Comparison of the Mental Health, Sleep, and Anaerobic Power of Cannabis Users, Cannabidiol Users, and Non Users

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    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences among groups of individuals who regularly use cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), or who are non-users with respect to mental health, sleep, and anaerobic power measures. A total of 24 participants (21 males and 3 females) were recruited and placed into groups based on their regular cannabis/CBD or non-cannabis/CBD use. The cannabis user group was using cannabis at least three times per week for the past 8 weeks (CA; n=8), the CBD user group was using CBD at least three times per week for the past 8 weeks (CB; n=8), and the control group was not using any cannabis or CBD product within the past 8 weeks (CO; n=8). Participants completed 2 total visits. During these visits, they completed a body composition evaluation using air displacement plethysmography with a BODPOD (COSMED USA Inc., Concord, CA), a physical activity assessment using the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PARQ) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), mental health evaluation using the Psychological Wellbeing Scale (PWB), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS), and Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index (QOL) surveys, a subjective sleep quality survey using the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ), and an anaerobic fitness assessment using the Wingate anaerobic power test on a cycle ergometer (Monark Ergomedic 894E, Monark, Varberg, Sweden). Additionally, the participants in the CA group completed a Daily Sessions, Frequency, Age of Onset, and Quantity of Cannabis Use Inventory (DFAQ-CU) to measure cannabis use. Mean PWB scores of CB and CO were significantly higher in the Autonomy (p\u3c0.001; p=0.003), Personal Growth (p\u3c0.001; p\u3c0.001), Positive Relations with Others (p=0.001; p=0.002), Purpose in Life (p=0.003; p=0.003), and Self-Acceptance (p=0.001; p=0.02) subscales, respectively, when compared to CA. There were no significant differences in mean PWB scores between CB and CO in all PWB subscales (p\u3e0.05). Mean QOL score of CB was significantly higher than the mean score of CA (p=0.004), but no significant differences were found between CA and CO (p=0.11) or CB and CO (p=0.48). Mean GAD-7 (p=0.40) and PFS (p=0.25) scores were not significant between groups. Mean LSEQ (p=0.42), GTS (p=0.44), QOS (p=0.29), AFS (p=0.14), and BFW (p=0.14) scores were not significant between groups. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of average peak power (p=0.77), relative peak power (p=0.15), mean power (p=0.97), relative mean power (p=0.30), and anaerobic fatigue (p=0.82) during the Wingate assessment. The present study demonstrated no significant differences between CA, CB, and CO with respect to measures of anxiety, subjective fatigue, perceived sleep quality, and anaerobic power, but revealed significant differences between CA and both CB and CO in measures of psychological wellbeing and quality of life. These results suggest that regular cannabis users may have a lower psychological state and a lower perceived quality of life when compared to CBD users or cannabis and CBD non-users. Findings from this study provide a novel insight into the mental health, subjective sleep, and anaerobic power measures of regular cannabis users, regular CBD users, and a group of non-users

    The gravitational wave signal from the Galactic disk population of binaries containing two compact objects

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    We review the properties of Galactic binaries containing two compact objects, as derived by means of population synthesis. Using this information we calculate the gravitational wave signal of these binaries. At frequencies below f ~< 2 mHz the double white dwarf population forms an unresolved background for the low-frequency gravitational wave detector LISA. Above this limit some few thousand double white dwarfs and few tens of binaries containing neutron stars will be resolved. Of the resolved double white dwarfs ~500 have a total mass above the Chandrasekhar limit. About ~95 of these have a measurable frequency change allowing a determination of their chirp mass. We discuss the properties of the resolved systems.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&

    Medulloblastoma and ependymoma cells display levels of 5-carboxylcytosine and elevated TET1 expression

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    Background Alteration of DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine, 5mC) patterns represents one of the causes of tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Tet proteins can oxidize 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Although the roles of these oxidised forms of 5mC (oxi-mCs) in cancer pathogenesis are still largely unknown, there are indications that they may be involved in the mechanisms of malignant transformation. Thus, reduction of 5hmC content represents an epigenetic hallmark of human tumours and, according to our recent report; 5caC is enriched in a proportion of breast cancers and gliomas. Nevertheless, the distribution of oxi-mCs in paediatric brain tumours has not been assessed. Findings Here we analyse the global levels and spatial distribution of 5hmC and 5caC in 4 brain tumour cell lines derived from paediatric sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway activated medulloblastomas (Daoy and UW228-3) and ependymomas (BXD-1425EPN and DKFZEP1NS). We show that, unlike HeLa cells, the paediatric tumour cell lines possess both 5hmC and 5caC at immunochemically detectable levels, and demonstrate that both modifications display high degrees of spatial overlap in the nuclei of medulloblastomas and ependymomas. Moreover, although 5hmC levels are comparable in the 4 brain tumour cell lines, 5caC staining intensities differ dramatically between them with highest levels of this mark in a subpopulation of DKFZ-EP1NS cells. Remarkably, the 5caC enrichment does not correlate with 5hmC levels and is not associated with alterations in Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG) expression in SHH medulloblastoma and ependymoma cell lines, but corresponds to elevated levels of TET1 transcript in UW228-3 and DKFZ-EP1NS cells. Conclusions We demonstrate that both 5caC enrichment and elevated TET1 expression are observed in SHH medulloblastomas and ependymomas. Our results suggest that increased Tet-dependent 5mC oxidation may represent one of the epigenetic signatures of cancers with neural stem cell origin and, thus, may contribute to development of novel approaches for diagnosis and therapy of the brain tumours

    Legal linked data ecosystems and the rule of law

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    This chapter introduces the notions of meta-rule of law and socio-legal ecosystems to both foster and regulate linked democracy. It explores the way of stimulating innovative regulations and building a regulatory quadrant for the rule of law. The chapter summarises briefly (i) the notions of responsive, better and smart regulation; (ii) requirements for legal interchange languages (legal interoperability); (iii) and cognitive ecology approaches. It shows how the protections of the substantive rule of law can be embedded into the semantic languages of the web of data and reflects on the conditions that make possible their enactment and implementation as a socio-legal ecosystem. The chapter suggests in the end a reusable multi-levelled meta-model and four notions of legal validity: positive, composite, formal, and ecological

    Magna Carta, the Rule of Law and the Limits on Government

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    This paper surveys the legal tradition that links Magna Carta with the modern concepts of the rule of law and the limits on government. It documents that the original understanding of the rule of law included substantive commitments to individual freedom and limited government. Then, it attempts at explaining how and why such commitments were lost to a formalist interpretation of the rule of law from 1848 to 1939. The paper concludes by arguing how a revival of the substantive commitments of the rule of law is central in a project of reshaping modern states

    A arqueologia dos fermentados: a etílica história dos Tupi-Guarani

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    O consumo de bebidas fermentadas é geralmente negligenciado pela literatura arqueológica, que trata a questão como tema de interesse secundário (recreativo) na história das populações humanas. Entretanto, a literatura etnográfica das sociedades indígenas das terras baixas sul-americanas indica exatamente o oposto: é o alimento vegetal sólido e não alcoólico que tende a possuir um papel secundário na vida cotidiana e ritualística de diversos coletivos. Os dados arqueológicos aprofundam temporalmente essa relação entre o ser humano e os fermentados. Além disso, os vasos cerâmicos arqueológicos utilizados para o preparo e consumo desses fermentados são fundamentais para a compreensão de processos e eventos históricos que modelaram a dispersão de uma série de grupos pelo continente

    Domain Engineering: the Challenge, Status and Trends

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    Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division; under joint sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research; the Naval Command, Control, and Ocean Surveillance Center; and the Naval Surface Wa.rf%rc Center; has initiated a thrust to examine the ongoing trends in engineering complex systems, to enrich and enhance the state-of-the-art in engineering methods and practices, and to facilitate the implementation of df&amp;ed improvements. To support that thrust, the Secon