41 research outputs found

    Policies on doctors’ declaration of interests in medical organisations : a thematic analysis

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    ObjectivesThere has been growing concern about doctors? conflicts of interests (COIs) but it is unclear what processes and tools exist to enable the consistent declaration and management of such interests. This study mapped existing policies across a variety of organisations and settings to better understand the degree of variation and identify opportunities for improvement.DesignThematic analysis.Setting and ParticipantsWe studied the COI policies of 31 UK and international organisations which set or influence professional standards or engage doctors in healthcare commissioning and provision settings.Main outcome measures:Organisational policy similarities and differences.ResultsMost policies (29/31) referred to the need for individuals to apply judgement when deciding whether an interest is a conflict, with just over half (18/31) advocating a low threshold. Policies differed on the perception of frequency of COI, the timings of declarations, the type of interests that needed to be declared, and how COI and policy breaches should be managed. Just 14/31 policies stated a duty to report concerns in relation to COI. Only 18/31 policies advised COI would be published, while three stated that any disclosures would remain confidential.ConclusionsThe analysis of organisational policies revealed wide variation in what interests should be declared, when and how. This variation suggests that the current system may not be adequate to maintain a high level of professional integrity in all settings and that there is a need for better standardisation that reduces the risk of errors while addressing the needs of doctors, organisations and the public.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    Measurement of inclusive D*+- and associated dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

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    Inclusive photoproduction of D*+- mesons has been measured for photon-proton centre-of-mass energies in the range 130 < W < 280 GeV and a photon virtuality Q^2 < 1 GeV^2. The data sample used corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 37 pb^-1. Total and differential cross sections as functions of the D* transverse momentum and pseudorapidity are presented in restricted kinematical regions and the data are compared with next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD calculations using the "massive charm" and "massless charm" schemes. The measured cross sections are generally above the NLO calculations, in particular in the forward (proton) direction. The large data sample also allows the study of dijet production associated with charm. A significant resolved as well as a direct photon component contribute to the cross section. Leading order QCD Monte Carlo calculations indicate that the resolved contribution arises from a significant charm component in the photon. A massive charm NLO parton level calculation yields lower cross sections compared to the measured results in a kinematic region where the resolved photon contribution is significant.Comment: 32 pages including 6 figure

    Measurement of Jet Shapes in Photoproduction at HERA

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    The shape of jets produced in quasi-real photon-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies in the range 134277134-277 GeV has been measured using the hadronic energy flow. The measurement was done with the ZEUS detector at HERA. Jets are identified using a cone algorithm in the ηϕ\eta - \phi plane with a cone radius of one unit. Measured jet shapes both in inclusive jet and dijet production with transverse energies ETjet>14E^{jet}_T>14 GeV are presented. The jet shape broadens as the jet pseudorapidity (ηjet\eta^{jet}) increases and narrows as ETjetE^{jet}_T increases. In dijet photoproduction, the jet shapes have been measured separately for samples dominated by resolved and by direct processes. Leading-logarithm parton-shower Monte Carlo calculations of resolved and direct processes describe well the measured jet shapes except for the inclusive production of jets with high ηjet\eta^{jet} and low ETjetE^{jet}_T. The observed broadening of the jet shape as ηjet\eta^{jet} increases is consistent with the predicted increase in the fraction of final state gluon jets.Comment: 29 pages including 9 figure

    Measurement of the Diffractive Cross Section in Deep Inelastic Scattering using ZEUS 1994 Data

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    The DIS diffractive cross section, dσγpXNdiff/dMXd\sigma^{diff}_{\gamma^* p \to XN}/dM_X, has been measured in the mass range MX<15M_X < 15 GeV for γp\gamma^*p c.m. energies 60<W<20060 < W < 200 GeV and photon virtualities Q2=7Q^2 = 7 to 140 GeV2^2. For fixed Q2Q^2 and MXM_X, the diffractive cross section rises rapidly with WW, dσγpXNdiff(MX,W,Q2)/dMXWadiffd\sigma^{diff}_{\gamma^*p \to XN}(M_X,W,Q^2)/dM_X \propto W^{a^{diff}} with adiff=0.507±0.034(stat)0.046+0.155(syst)a^{diff} = 0.507 \pm 0.034 (stat)^{+0.155}_{-0.046}(syst) corresponding to a tt-averaged pomeron trajectory of \bar{\alphapom} = 1.127 \pm 0.009 (stat)^{+0.039}_{-0.012} (syst) which is larger than \bar{\alphapom} observed in hadron-hadron scattering. The WW dependence of the diffractive cross section is found to be the same as that of the total cross section for scattering of virtual photons on protons. The data are consistent with the assumption that the diffractive structure function F2D(3)F^{D(3)}_2 factorizes according to \xpom F^{D(3)}_2 (\xpom,\beta,Q^2) = (x_0/ \xpom)^n F^{D(2)}_2(\beta,Q^2). They are also consistent with QCD based models which incorporate factorization breaking. The rise of \xpom F^{D(3)}_2 with decreasing \xpom and the weak dependence of F2D(2)F^{D(2)}_2 on Q2Q^2 suggest a substantial contribution from partonic interactions

    Measurement of the F2 structure function in deep inelastic e+^{+}p scattering using 1994 data from the ZEUS detector at HERA

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    We present measurements of the structure function \Ft\ in e^+p scattering at HERA in the range 3.5\;\Gevsq < \qsd < 5000\;\Gevsq. A new reconstruction method has allowed a significant improvement in the resolution of the kinematic variables and an extension of the kinematic region covered by the experiment. At \qsd < 35 \;\Gevsq the range in x now spans 6.3\cdot 10^{-5} < x < 0.08 providing overlap with measurements from fixed target experiments. At values of Q^2 above 1000 GeV^2 the x range extends to 0.5. Systematic errors below 5\perc\ have been achieved for most of the kinematic urray, W

    Exclusive Electroproduction of ρ0\rho^0 and J/ψJ/\psi Mesons at HERA

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    Exclusive production of ρ0\rho^0 and J/ψJ/\psi mesons in e^+ p collisions has been studied with the ZEUS detector in the kinematic range 0.25<Q2<50GeV2,20<W<167GeV0.25 < Q^2 < 50 GeV^2, 20 < W < 167 GeV for the ρ0\rho^0 data and 2<Q2<40GeV2,50<W<150GeV2 < Q^2 < 40 GeV^2, 50 < W < 150 GeV for the J/ψJ/\psi data. Cross sections for exclusive ρ0\rho^0 and J/ψJ/\psi production have been measured as a function of Q2,WQ^2, W and tt. The spin-density matrix elements r0004,r111r^{04}_{00}, r^1_{1-1} and Rer105Re r^{5}_{10} have been determined for exclusive ρ0\rho^0 production as well as r0004r^{04}_{00} and r1104r^{04}_{1-1} for exclusive J/ψJ/\psi production. The results are discussed in the context of theoretical models invoking soft and hard phenomena.Comment: 57 pages including 21 figures, minor modifications to Figs. 19-21, these figures supercede those of Eur. Phys. J. C6 (1999) 603-62

    Comparison of ZEUS data with standard model predictions for e+pe+Xe^+ p \rightarrow e^+ X scattering at high xx and Q2Q^2

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    Using the ZEUS detector at HERA, we have studied the reaction e(+)p --> e(+)X for Q(2) > 5000 GeV2 with a 20.1 pb(-1) data sample collected during the years 1993 to 1996. For Q(2) below 15000 GeV2, the data are in good agreement with Standard Model expectations. For Q(2) > 35000 GeV2. two events are observed while 0.145 +/- 0.013 events are expected, A statistical analysis of a large ensemble of simulated Standard Model experiments indicates that with probability 6.0%, an excess at least as unlikely as that observed would occur above some Q(2) cut. For x > 0.55 and y > 0.75, four events are observed where 0.91 +/- 0.08 events are expected, A statistical analysis of the two-dimensional distribution of the events in x and y yields a probability of 0.72% for the region x > 0.55 and y > 0.25 and a probability of 7.8% for the entire Q(2) > 5000 GeV2 data sample. The observed excess above Standard Model expectations is particularly interesting because it occurs in a previously unexplored kinematic region

    Measurement of Elastic ϕ\phi Photoproduction at HERA

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    The production of ϕ\phi mesons in the reaction e+pe+ϕpe^{+}p \rightarrow e^{+} \phi p (ϕK+K\phi \rightarrow K^{+}K^{-}) at a median Q2Q^{2} of $10^{-4} \ \rm{GeV^2}hasbeenstudiedwiththeZEUSdetectoratHERA.Thedifferential has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The differential \phiphotoproductioncrosssection photoproduction cross section d\sigma/dthasanexponentialshapeandhasbeendeterminedinthekinematicrange has an exponential shape and has been determined in the kinematic range 0.1<|t|<0.5 \ \rm{GeV^2}and and 60 < W < 80 \ \rm{GeV}.Anintegratedcrosssectionof. An integrated cross section of \sigma_{\gamma p \rightarrow \phi p} = 0.96 \pm 0.19^{+0.21}_{-0.18} \rm{\mu b}hasbeenobtainedbyextrapolatingtot=0.Whencomparedtolowerenergydata,theresultsshowaweakenergydependenceofboth has been obtained by extrapolating to {\it t} = 0. When compared to lower energy data, the results show a weak energy dependence of both \sigma_{\gamma p \rightarrow \phi p}andtheslopeofthe and the slope of the tdistribution.The distribution. The \phidecayangulardistributionsareconsistentwith decay angular distributions are consistent with schannelhelicityconservation.FromlowerenergiestoHERAenergies,thefeaturesof-channel helicity conservation. From lower energies to HERA energies, the features of \phi$ photoproduction are compatible with those of a soft diffractive process.Comment: 23 pages, including 6 post script figure
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