218 research outputs found

    Photocatalytic reaction over iron hydroxides: A novel visible-light-responsive photocatalyst

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    Photocatalytic properties of iron hydroxide (FeOOH) particles prepared by a hydrothermal method were estimated under visible-light irradiation. Hydrothermal treatment in the presence of ethanol induced α-FeOOH (goethite) formation even under an acidic condition, while the presence of chloride ion led to preferential formation of β-FeOOH (akaganeite). α-FeOOH particles with largest specific surface area showed the highest photocatalytic activity among commercial and prepared FeOOH samples and exhibited total decomposition of acetaldehyde even under visible-light irradiation. The progress of photocatalytic reaction may be due to multi-electron reduction of oxygen over FeOOH particles

    Clinical Practice Changes After Post-Market Safety Reports on Desmopressin Orally Disintegrating Tablet in Japan: A Single-Center Retrospective Study

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    Background: Desmopressin orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) was approved in March 2012 in Japan; the post-market safety reports, which warned about adequate initial dose of desmopressin ODT, were published in 2014. However, it is unclear how the warning affected physician and patient behavior. Methods: We performed a retrospective single-center study to compare the clinical situation of Japanese central diabetes insipidus patients before and after the report. Results: Thirty-four patients before October 2014 and 16 patients after November 2014 switched from intranasal desmopressin to desmopressin ODT. The mean follow-up period after the switch to desmopressin ODT was 38 ± 3 months. Patients switching after November 2014 tended to have lower ratios of oral to nasal desmopressin dose at switching and 3 months after the switch (at switching; P = 0.20, 3 months; P = 0.42, respectively), and higher ratios from 6 to 12 months than before October 2014 (6 months; P = 0.93, 9 months; P = 0.52, 12 months; P = 0.80, respectively). Relative doses per initial desmopressin ODT at 9 and 12 months were significantly higher in patients switching after November 2014 than in patients switching before October 2014 (9 months; P = 0.02, 12 months; P = 0.04, respectively). Moreover, logistic regression analysis revealed that the incidence of hyponatremia was dependent on the ratio of nasal to oral desmopressin dose (P = 0.02). In addition, in four out of six patients who had serum sodium level reduced below 130 mEq/L, hyponatremia occurred within 1 month after the switch. Conclusions: A more gradual dose titration after the safety reports was performed, which involved the long-term safety of desmopressin ODT use. Vigilance of hyponatremia in early phase of desmopressin ODT use should be noted

    Radiotherapy for inoperable and refractory endometriosis presenting with massive hemorrhage: a case report

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    INTRODUCTION: Many patients with endometriosis are treated with medication or by surgical approaches. However, a small number of patients do not respond to medication and are inoperable because of comorbidities. This case report shows the effectiveness of radiotherapy for refractory endometriosis and includes a time series of serum estradiol levels. CASE PRESENTATION: A 47-year-old Asian woman presented to our facility with uncontrolled endometriosis refractory to medication. Our patient was considered inoperable because of severe idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and underwent radiotherapy for massive genital bleeding requiring blood transfusions. A radiation dose of 20Gy in 10 fractions was delivered to the pelvis, including the bilateral ovaries, uterus, and myomas. An additional 10Gy in five fractions was delivered to the endometrium to control residual bleeding. Genital bleeding was completely inhibited on day 46 after radiotherapy. Hormonal analysis revealed that radiotherapy induced post-menopausal status. Two years after radiotherapy, atypical genital bleeding had not recurred and has been well controlled without side effects. CONCLUSIONS: Disrupted ovarian function is an adverse effect of radiotherapy. However, radiotherapy can be useful for inducing menopause. In cases of medication-refractory or inoperable endometriosis, radiotherapy would be an effective treatment option

    Peritoneal dissemination of high-grade serous ovarian cancer: pivotal roles of chromosomal instability and epigenetic dynamics

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    Epithelial ovarian cancer remains the lethal gynecological malignancy in women. The representative histotype is high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), and most patients with HGSC present at advanced stages with peritoneal dissemination. Since the peritoneal dissemination is the most important factor for poor prognosis of the patients, complete exploration for its molecular mechanisms is mandatory. In this narrative review, being based on the clinical, pathologic, and genomic findings of HGSC, chromosomal instability and epigenetic dynamics have been discussed as the potential drivers for cancer development in the fallopian tube, acquisition of cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties, and peritoneal metastasis of HGSC. The natural history of carcinogenesis with clonal evolution, and adaptation to microenvironment of peritoneal dissemination of HGSC should be targeted in the novel development of strategies for prevention, early detection, and precision treatment for patients with HGSC

    E22Δ Mutation in Amyloid β-Protein Promotes β-Sheet Transformation, Radical Production, and Synaptotoxicity, But Not Neurotoxicity

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    Oligomers of 40- or 42-mer amyloid β-protein (Aβ40, Aβ42) cause cognitive decline and synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. We proposed the importance of a turn at Glu22 and Asp23 of Aβ42 to induce its neurotoxicity through the formation of radicals. Recently, a novel deletion mutant at Glu22 (E22Δ) of Aβ42 was reported to accelerate oligomerization and synaptotoxicity. To investigate this mechanism, the effects of the E22Δ mutation in Aβ42 and Aβ40 on the transformation of β-sheets, radical production, and neurotoxicity were examined. Both mutants promoted β-sheet transformation and the formation of radicals, while their neurotoxicity was negative. In contrast, E22P-Aβ42 with a turn at Glu22 and Asp23 exhibited potent neurotoxicity along with the ability to form radicals and potent synaptotoxicity. These data suggest that conformational change in E22Δ-Aβ is similar to that in E22P-Aβ42 but not the same, since E22Δ-Aβ42 exhibited no cytotoxicity, unlike E22P-Aβ42 and wild-type Aβ42

    The role of aspirations on career development : Relationships to life satisfaction,academic motivation, and prosocial behaviors

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    The present study develops an Aspirations Index for Children based on self-determination theory and elucidates the role of aspirations. A total of 1, 398 junior-high school students in the 7th to 9th grades participated in a questionnaire survey in Studies 1 and 2. The results of exploratory factor analysis reveal that the Aspirations Index consists of two aspirations: namely, intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations. As theoretically hypothesized, confirmatory factor analysis supports both seven sub-categories within the aspirations and a higher-order model. The results of correlation analysis indicate that, compared to extrinsic aspirations, intrinsic aspirations are positively correlated with life satisfaction, autonomous motivation for academic activities, and prosocial behaviors. In addition, we find that extrinsic aspirations are higher for boys than for girls. Finally, we discuss future directions and the benefits of using the Aspirations Index for Children for career education
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