67 research outputs found

    Induction of programmed cell death (apoptosis) by influenza virus infection in tissue culture cells

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    The process of cell death caused by influenza virus infection in cultured MDCK and HeLa cells was analysed. This infection gave rise to nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation accompanied by chromosomal DNA fragmentation into oligonucleosomes. Chromosomal DNA fragmentation progressed concomitantly with cell lysis of MDCK cells and HeLa cells, producing high and low yields of virus particles, respectively, indicating that the extent of cell lysis was not proportional to the virus production. The endonuclease inhibitor zinc blocked DNA fragmentation in MDCK cells. Cycloheximide inhibited DNA fragmentation as well as cell lysis. Inhibition occurred when the drug was added to the medium within 2 h after infection but not efficiently at 4 h or later. Infection induced the Fas Ag gene, which encodes a possible apoptosis-mediating molecule, in the early infectious stage followed by the expression of Fas Ag on the cell surface. These results suggested that influenza virus infection causes apoptotic death of cultured cells, and their fate might be determined at an early stage of the infection by induction of an apoptotic gene

    Evaluation of a Slum Upgrading Program for Improvement of Water Supply in Bandung City, Indonesia

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    A slum upgrading program has provided communal boreholes (KOTAKU boreholes) to improve water supply in slums of Indonesia. However, the achievement of the program was only estimated by the number of households served with the boreholes. We evaluated the water supply improvement by comparing actual water consumption, quality, and expenditure and household satisfaction of existing water sources in a slum of Bandung City, Indonesia. A high iron concentration and microbial contamination were observed in some KOTAKU boreholes, but the quality was better than that in the previous sources of the current KOTAKU borehole users. Twenty percent of the users spend more than 4% of their income on water due to bottled water and vended water for drinking and cooking. However, KOTAKU boreholes replaced that water for drinking and/or cooking, resulting in less water expenditure in low-income households. The average consumption was 134 L per capita per day (LPCD), which was higher than the target (60 LPCD) of the program. However, it was found that a highly intermittent water supply was the reason for household dissatisfaction rather than the amount of consumption. The program improved water supply; however, this study revealed the limitations of the water supply, namely, a lack of attention to continuous water supply and water quality

    Performance Assessment for Increasing Connection Rates of Private Water Supply Operators in Cambodia

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    Private water supply operators (PWSOs) play an important role in extending piped water services in small cities in Cambodia. However, the connection rates to PWSOs are highly varied. Therefore, this study aimed to find the reasons for the low connection rates of PWSOs and to propose ways to increase the connection rates. The three PWSOs selected for this study supply water continuously, with sufficiently high pressure and good water quality except for the low concentration of residual chlorine, while the per capita supply volume varies significantly. Households with alternative water sources, namely rainwater and well water, consume less piped water than those without alternative water sources. Scattered service areas far away from water treatment plants had coverage rates that were lower than in compact service areas. The present connection costs and water tariffs are higher than those that non-connected households are willing to pay, though they pay high costs for bottled water. Due to the high variation in household income, connection fees and water tariffs are a financial burden for low-income households. Because the operating rates of the PWSOs are 21–47%, it is advised that PWSOs reduce their connection fees and water tariffs to obtain more connected households in their service areas

    Vanadium in asymmetric synthesis: emerging concepts in catalyst design and applications

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    Takizawa S, Gröger H, Sasai H. Vanadium in asymmetric synthesis: emerging concepts in catalyst design and applications. Chemistry. 2015;21(25):8992-8997.In recent years vanadium catalysis has been extended to a range of different and even complementary directions in asymmetric synthesis. Inspired by nature's way to activate both substrate and reagent in many cases, the design of efficient bifunctional and dinuclear vanadium catalysts has been achieved. Furthermore, vanadium catalysis has been an early field in which "hybrid catalysts" have been studied in detail by incorporation of oxovanadium complexes into proteins, thus giving artificial enzymes. In addition, a high compatibility of vanadium with proteins enabled the use of vanadium chemocatalysts for combinations with enzyme catalysis in one-pot, thus leading to dynamic kinetic resolutions. In this contribution, these three concepts of vanadium catalysis opening up new perspectives for asymmetric synthesis are reviewed

    Performance Assessment for Increasing Connection Rates of Private Water Supply Operators in Cambodia

    No full text
    Private water supply operators (PWSOs) play an important role in extending piped water services in small cities in Cambodia. However, the connection rates to PWSOs are highly varied. Therefore, this study aimed to find the reasons for the low connection rates of PWSOs and to propose ways to increase the connection rates. The three PWSOs selected for this study supply water continuously, with sufficiently high pressure and good water quality except for the low concentration of residual chlorine, while the per capita supply volume varies significantly. Households with alternative water sources, namely rainwater and well water, consume less piped water than those without alternative water sources. Scattered service areas far away from water treatment plants had coverage rates that were lower than in compact service areas. The present connection costs and water tariffs are higher than those that non-connected households are willing to pay, though they pay high costs for bottled water. Due to the high variation in household income, connection fees and water tariffs are a financial burden for low-income households. Because the operating rates of the PWSOs are 21–47%, it is advised that PWSOs reduce their connection fees and water tariffs to obtain more connected households in their service areas

    Evaluation of a Slum Upgrading Program for Improvement of Water Supply in Bandung City, Indonesia

    No full text
    A slum upgrading program has provided communal boreholes (KOTAKU boreholes) to improve water supply in slums of Indonesia. However, the achievement of the program was only estimated by the number of households served with the boreholes. We evaluated the water supply improvement by comparing actual water consumption, quality, and expenditure and household satisfaction of existing water sources in a slum of Bandung City, Indonesia. A high iron concentration and microbial contamination were observed in some KOTAKU boreholes, but the quality was better than that in the previous sources of the current KOTAKU borehole users. Twenty percent of the users spend more than 4% of their income on water due to bottled water and vended water for drinking and cooking. However, KOTAKU boreholes replaced that water for drinking and/or cooking, resulting in less water expenditure in low-income households. The average consumption was 134 L per capita per day (LPCD), which was higher than the target (60 LPCD) of the program. However, it was found that a highly intermittent water supply was the reason for household dissatisfaction rather than the amount of consumption. The program improved water supply; however, this study revealed the limitations of the water supply, namely, a lack of attention to continuous water supply and water quality

    Spatial Analysis of Groundwater Abstraction and Land Subsidence for Planning the Piped Water Supply in Jakarta, Indonesia

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    Although the special region of Jakarta Province (DKI Jakarta), Indonesia, has a large population of 10.9 million, piped water coverage remains at only 64%. Therefore, excessive groundwater abstraction has caused serious land subsidence over the last few decades. This study proposed the priority areas for piped water supply extension to alleviate the adverse effects of groundwater over-abstraction in DKI Jakarta. Water consumption and multilayer analyses (e.g., geology, groundwater abstraction, groundwater level, piped water coverage, and groundwater quality) were carried out to determine the priority areas for piped water development. Based on three parameters, namely the water demand–supply gap, land subsidence, and groundwater quality, the northern and western regions of Jakarta were selected as the priority areas for piped water development, followed by the southern and eastern regions. The demand for piped water by the population in the abovementioned priority areas is estimated to be 462,211 m3/d, while the total water demand of Jakarta is 1,878,899 m3/d, which is greater than the supply capacity of 1,747,440 m3/d from the existing water treatment plants. Therefore, the areas for controlled groundwater abstraction were also selected to augment the shortfall of the piped water supply capacity
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