257 research outputs found

    c5++ - Multi-Technique Analysis Software for Next Generation Geodetic Instruments

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    Processing of space geodetic techniques should be carried out with consistent and utmost up-todate physical models. Therefore, c5++ is being developed, which will act as a framework under which dedicated space geodetic applications can be created. Due to its nature, combination of different techniques as well as automated processing of VLBI experiments will become possible with c5++

    Warkworth 12-m VLBI Station: WARK12M

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    The Warkworth 12-m radio telescope is operated by the Institute for Radio Astronomy and Space Research (IRASR) at AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand. Here we review the characteristics of the 12-m VLBI station and report on a number of activities and technical developments in 2012

    The First Experiment with VLBI-GPS Hybrid System

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    In this paper, we introduce our GPS-VLBI hybrid system and show the results of the first experiment which is now under way. In this hybrid system, GPS signals are captured by a normal GPS antenna, down-converted to IF signals, and then sampled by the VLBI sampler VSSP32 developed by NICT. The sampled GPS data are recorded and correlated in the same way as VLBI observation data. The correlator outputs are the group delay and the delay rate. Since the whole system uses the same frequency standard, many sources of systematic errors are common between the VLBI system and the GPS system. In this hybrid system, the GPS antenna can be regarded as an additional VLBI antenna having multiple beams towards GPS satellites. Therefore, we expect that this approach will provide enough data to improve zenith delay estimates and geodetic results

    Current Status of the Development of a Transportable and Compact VLBI System by NICT and GSI

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    MARBLE (Multiple Antenna Radio-interferometer for Baseline Length Evaluation) is under development by NICT and GSI. The main part of MARBLE is a transportable VLBI system with a compact antenna. The aim of this system is to provide precise baseline length over about 10 km for calibrating baselines. The calibration baselines are used to check and validate surveying instruments such as GPS receiver and EDM (Electro-optical Distance Meter). It is necessary to examine the calibration baselines regularly to keep the quality of the validation. The VLBI technique can examine and evaluate the calibration baselines. On the other hand, the following roles are expected of a compact VLBI antenna in the VLBI2010 project. In order to achieve the challenging measurement precision of VLBI2010, it is well known that it is necessary to deal with the problem of thermal and gravitational deformation of the antenna. One promising approach may be connected-element interferometry between a compact antenna and a VLBI2010 antenna. By measuring repeatedly the baseline between the small stable antenna and the VLBI2010 antenna, the deformation of the primary antenna can be measured and the thermal and gravitational models of the primary antenna will be able to be constructed. We made two prototypes of a transportable and compact VLBI system from 2007 to 2009. We performed VLBI experiments using theses prototypes and got a baseline length between the two prototypes. The formal error of the measured baseline length was 2.7 mm. We expect that the baseline length error will be reduced by using a high-speed A/D sampler

    Human artificial chromosome with a conditional centromere for gene delivery and gene expression.

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    Human artificial chromosomes (HACs), which carry a fully functional centromere and are maintained as a single-copy episome, are not associated with random mutagenesis and offer greater control over expression of ectopic genes on the HAC. Recently, we generated a HAC with a conditional centromere, which includes the tetracycline operator (tet-O) sequence embedded in the alphoid DNA array. This conditional centromere can be inactivated, loss of the alphoid(tet-O) (tet-O HAC) by expression of tet-repressor fusion proteins. In this report, we describe adaptation of the tet-O HAC vector for gene delivery and gene expression in human cells. A loxP cassette was inserted into the tet-O HAC by homologous recombination in chicken DT40 cells following a microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT). The tet-O HAC with the loxP cassette was then transferred into Chinese hamster ovary cells, and EGFP transgene was efficiently and accurately incorporated into the tet-O HAC vector. The EGFP transgene was stably expressed in human cells after transfer via MMCT. Because the transgenes inserted on the tet-O HAC can be eliminated from cells by HAC loss due to centromere inactivation, this HAC vector system provides important novel features and has potential applications for gene expression studies and gene therapy

    Failure of Effector Function of Human CD8+ T Cells in NOD/SCID/JAK3−/− Immunodeficient Mice Transplanted with Human CD34+ Hematopoietic Stem Cells

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    Humanized mice, which are generated by transplanting human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells into immunodeficient mice, are expected to be useful for the research on human immune responses. It is reported that antigen-specific T cell responses occur in immunodeficient mice transplanted with both human fetal thymus/liver tissues and CD34+ fetal cells, but it remains unclear whether antigen-specific T cell responses occur in those transplanted with only human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Here we investigated the differentiation and function of human CD8+ T cells reconstituted in NOD/SCID/Jak3−/− mice transplanted with human CD34+ HSCs (hNOK mice). Multicolor flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that human CD8+ T cells generated from the CD34+ HSCs comprised only 3 subtypes, i.e., CD27highCD28+CD45RA+CCR7+, CD27+CD28+CD45RA−CCR7+, and CD27+CD28+CD45RA−CCR7− and had 3 phenotypes for 3 lytic molecules, i.e., perforin(Per)−granzymeA(GraA)−granzymeB(GraB)−, Per−GraA+GraB−, and PerlowGraA+GraB+. These CD8+ T cells failed to produce IFN-γ and to proliferate after stimulation with alloantigens. These results indicate that the antigen-specific T cell response cannot be elicited in mice transplanted with only human CD34+ HSCs, because the T cells fail to develop normally in such mice