3,115 research outputs found

    Measurement of the Total Active 8B Solar Neutrino Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory with Enhanced Neutral Current Sensitivity

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    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has precisely determined the total active (nu_x) 8B solar neutrino flux without assumptions about the energy dependence of the nu_e survival probability. The measurements were made with dissolved NaCl in the heavy water to enhance the sensitivity and signature for neutral-current interactions. The flux is found to be 5.21 +/- 0.27 (stat) +/- 0.38 (syst) x10^6 cm^{-2}s^{-1}, in agreement with previous measurements and standard solar models. A global analysis of these and other solar and reactor neutrino results yields Delta m^{2} = 7.1^{+1.2}_{-0.6}x10^{-5} ev^2 and theta = 32.5^{+2.4}_{-2.3} degrees. Maximal mixing is rejected at the equivalent of 5.4 standard deviations.Comment: Submitted to Phys. Rev. Let

    Electron Antineutrino Search at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

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    Upper limits on the \nuebar flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory have been set based on the \nuebar charged-current reaction on deuterium. The reaction produces a positron and two neutrons in coincidence. This distinctive signature allows a search with very low background for \nuebar's from the Sun and other potential sources. Both differential and integral limits on the \nuebar flux have been placed in the energy range from 4 -- 14.8 MeV. For an energy-independent \nu_e --> \nuebar conversion mechanism, the integral limit on the flux of solar \nuebar's in the energy range from 4 -- 14.8 MeV is found to be \Phi_\nuebar <= 3.4 x 10^4 cm^{-2} s^{-1} (90% C.L.), which corresponds to 0.81% of the standard solar model 8B \nu_e flux of 5.05 x 10^6 cm^{-2} s^{-1}, and is consistent with the more sensitive limit from KamLAND in the 8.3 -- 14.8 MeV range of 3.7 x 10^2 cm^{-2} s^{-1} (90% C.L.). In the energy range from 4 -- 8 MeV, a search for \nuebar's is conducted using coincidences in which only the two neutrons are detected. Assuming a \nuebar spectrum for the neutron induced fission of naturally occurring elements, a flux limit of Phi_\nuebar <= 2.0 x 10^6 cm^{-2} s^{-1}(90% C.L.) is obtained.Comment: submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Measurements of Flavour Dependent Fragmentation Functions in Z^0 -> qq(bar) Events

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    Fragmentation functions for charged particles in Z -> qq(bar) events have been measured for bottom (b), charm (c) and light (uds) quarks as well as for all flavours together. The results are based on data recorded between 1990 and 1995 using the OPAL detector at LEP. Event samples with different flavour compositions were formed using reconstructed D* mesons and secondary vertices. The \xi_p = ln(1/x_E) distributions and the position of their maxima \xi_max are also presented separately for uds, c and b quark events. The fragmentation function for b quarks is significantly softer than for uds quarks.Comment: 29 pages, LaTeX, 5 eps figures (and colour figs) included, submitted to Eur. Phys. J.

    Measurement of the rate of nu_e + d --> p + p + e^- interactions produced by 8B solar neutrinos at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

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    Solar neutrinos from the decay of 8^8B have been detected at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) via the charged current (CC) reaction on deuterium and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. The CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to nu_e's, while the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to nu_mu's and nu_tau's. The flux of nu_e's from ^8B decay measured by the CC reaction rate is \phi^CC(nu_e) = 1.75 +/- 0.07 (stat)+0.12/-0.11 (sys.) +/- 0.05(theor) x 10^6 /cm^2 s. Assuming no flavor transformation, the flux inferred from the ES reaction rate is \phi^ES(nu_x) = 2.39+/-0.34 (stat.)+0.16}/-0.14 (sys) x 10^6 /cm^2 s. Comparison of \phi^CC(nu_e) to the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration's precision value of \phi^ES(\nu_x) yields a 3.3 sigma difference, providing evidence that there is a non-electron flavor active neutrino component in the solar flux. The total flux of active ^8B neutrinos is thus determined to be 5.44 +/-0.99 x 10^6/cm^2 s, in close agreement with the predictions of solar models.Comment: 6 pages (LaTex), 3 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev. Letter

    Bose-Einstein Correlations of Three Charged Pions in Hadronic Z^0 Decays

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    Bose-Einstein Correlations (BEC) of three identical charged pions were studied in 4 x 10^6 hadronic Z^0 decays recorded with the OPAL detector at LEP. The genuine three-pion correlations, corrected for the Coulomb effect, were separated from the known two-pion correlations by a new subtraction procedure. A significant genuine three-pion BEC enhancement near threshold was observed having an emitter source radius of r_3 = 0.580 +/- 0.004 (stat.) +/- 0.029 (syst.) fm and a strength of \lambda_3 = 0.504 +/- 0.010 (stat.) +/- 0.041 (syst.). The Coulomb correction was found to increase the \lambda_3 value by \~9% and to reduce r_3 by ~6%. The measured \lambda_3 corresponds to a value of 0.707 +/- 0.014 (stat.) +/- 0.078 (syst.) when one takes into account the three-pion sample purity. A relation between the two-pion and the three-pion source parameters is discussed.Comment: 19 pages, LaTeX, 5 eps figures included, accepted by Eur. Phys. J.

    First Neutrino Observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

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    The first neutrino observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are presented from preliminary analyses. Based on energy, direction and location, the data in the region of interest appear to be dominated by 8B solar neutrinos, detected by the charged current reaction on deuterium and elastic scattering from electrons, with very little background. Measurements of radioactive backgrounds indicate that the measurement of all active neutrino types via the neutral current reaction on deuterium will be possible with small systematic uncertainties. Quantitative results for the fluxes observed with these reactions will be provided when further calibrations have been completed.Comment: Latex, 7 pages, 10 figures, Invited paper at Neutrino 2000 Conference, Sudbury, Canada, June 16-21, 2000 to be published in the Proceeding

    Constraints on Nucleon Decay via "Invisible" Modes from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

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    Data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory have been used to constrain the lifetime for nucleon decay to ``invisible'' modes, such as n -> 3 nu. The analysis was based on a search for gamma-rays from the de-excitation of the residual nucleus that would result from the disappearance of either a proton or neutron from O16. A limit of tau_inv > 2 x 10^{29} years is obtained at 90% confidence for either neutron or proton decay modes. This is about an order of magnitude more stringent than previous constraints on invisible proton decay modes and 400 times more stringent than similar neutron modes.Comment: Update includes missing efficiency factor (limits change by factor of 2) Submitted to Physical Review Letter

    Measurement of Wő≥W\gamma and Ző≥Z\gamma Production in ppňČp\bar{p} Collisions at s\sqrt{s} = 1.96 TeV

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    The Standard Model predictions for Wő≥W\gamma and Ző≥Z\gamma production are tested using an integrated luminosity of 200 pb‚ąí1^{-1} of \ppbar collision data collected at the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The cross sections are measured selecting leptonic decays of the WW and ZZ bosons, and photons with transverse energy ET>7E_T>7 GeV that are well separated from leptons. The production cross sections and kinematic distributions for the Wő≥W\gamma and Ző≥Z\gamma are compared to SM predictions.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures, submitted to PR

    Measurement of the Lifetime Difference Between B_s Mass Eigenstates

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    We present measurements of the lifetimes and polarization amplitudes for B_s --> J/psi phi and B_d --> J/psi K*0 decays. Lifetimes of the heavy (H) and light (L) mass eigenstates in the B_s system are separately measured for the first time by determining the relative contributions of amplitudes with definite CP as a function of the decay time. Using 203 +/- 15 B_s decays, we obtain tau_L = (1.05 +{0.16}/-{0.13} +/- 0.02) ps and tau_H = (2.07 +{0.58}/-{0.46} +/- 0.03) ps. Expressed in terms of the difference DeltaGamma_s and average Gamma_s, of the decay rates of the two eigenstates, the results are DeltaGamma_s/Gamma_s = (65 +{25}/-{33} +/- 1)%, and DeltaGamma_s = (0.47 +{0.19}/-{0.24} +/- 0.01) inverse ps.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figures, 2 tables; as published in Physical Review Letters on 16 March 2005; revisions are for length and typesetting only, no changes in results or conclusion
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