61 research outputs found

    Radiation therapy and serum salivary amylase in head and neck cancer

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    Radiation therapy (RT) is a valid treatment option for head and neck cancer (HNC). The risk of RT-induced toxicities is significant, especially due to extended treatment fields. The raise in amylase activity is strictly dependent on the volume of salivary glands included in the irradiated target volume and it is firmly related to the dose. The aim of this review is to report the effects on salivary amylase activity after radiation exposure of salivary glands, in patients with HNC

    Vestibular schwannoma and ipsilateral endolymphatic hydrops: an unusual association

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    Vestibular schwannoma and endolymphatic hydrops are two conditions that may present with similar audio-vestibular symptoms. The association of the two in the same patient represents an unusual nding that may lead clinicians to errors and delays in diagnosis and clinical management of affected subjects. We discuss the case of a patient with an intrameatal vestibular schwannoma reporting symptoms suggestive for ipsilateral endolymphatic hydrops. The patient presented with uctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, and acute rotatory vertigo episodes, and underwent a full audiological evaluation and imaging of the brain with contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Clinical audio-vestibular and radiological examination con rmed the presence of coexisting vestibular schwannoma and endolymphatic hydrops. Hydrops was treated pharmacologically; vestibular schwannoma was monitored over time with a wait and scan protocol through conventional MRI. The association of vestibular schwannoma and endolymphatic hydrops is rare, but represents a possible nding in clinical practice. It is therefore recommended investigating the presence of inner ear disorders in patients with vestibular schwannoma and, similarly, to exclude the presence of this condition in patients with symptoms typical of inner ear disorders

    Recovery from repeated sudden hearing loss in a patient with Takayasu’s arteritis treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy: the first report in the literature

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    Hearing loss has been rarely reported in Takayasu's arteritis, presents as sudden sensorineural hearing loss and usually responds well to corticosteroid therapy. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy is commonly used as a supplementary treatment to corticosteroids for sudden hearing loss. We present the case of a woman with Takayasu's arteritis who had two episodes of hearing loss involving one ear at a time with a 11-month delay between each episode. During the first episode, the patient was treated with high-dose intramuscular corticosteroids with a temporary improvement of auditory threshold, that deteriorated close to previous level 14 days after cessation of therapy. In the second episode, Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy was associated to corticosteroids, with a significant, longer term improvement in both ears, including the one that had shown to be unresponsive to previous pharmacologic therapy. Oxygen therapy could have played a role in hearing restoration in this patient, as it could have acted synergically with corticosteroids amplifying their effect

    Treatment of osteolytic solitary painful osseous metastases with radiofrequency ablation or cryoablation: a retrospective study by propensity analysis

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    The present study aimed to measure the improvement in pain relief and quality of life in patients with osteolytic solitary painful bone metastasis treated by cryoablation (CA) or radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Fifty patients with solitary osteolytic painful bone metastases were retrospectively studied and selected by propensity analysis. Twenty-five patients underwent CA and the remaining twenty-five underwent RFA. Pain relief, in terms of complete response (CR), the number of patients requiring analgesia and the changes in self-rated quality of life (QoL) were measured following the two treatments. Thirty-two percent of patients treated by CA experienced a CR at 12 weeks versus 20% of patients treated by RFA. The rate of CR increased significantly with respect to baseline only in the group treated by CA. In both groups there was a significant change in the partial response with respect to baseline (36% in the CA group vs. 44% in the RFA group). The recurrence rate in the CA and RFA groups was 12% and 8%, respectively. The reduction in narcotic medication requirements with respect to baseline was only significant in the group treated by CA. A significant improvement in self-rated QoL was observed in both groups. The present study seems to suggest that CA only significantly improves the rate of CR and decreases the requirement of narcotic medications. Both CA and RFA led to an improvement in the self-rated QoL of patients after the treatments. However, the results of the present study should be considered as preliminary and to serve as a framework around which future trials may be designed

    Trophic and neurotrophic factors in human pituitary adenomas (Review)

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    The pituitary gland is an organ that functionally connects the hypothalamus with the peripheral organs. The pituitary gland is an important regulator of body homeostasis during development, stress, and other processes. Pituitary adenomas are a group of tumors arising from the pituitary gland: they may be subdivided in functional or non-functional, depending on their hormonal activity. Some trophic and neurotrophic factors seem to play a key role in the development and maintenance of the pituitary function and in the regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity. Several lines of evidence suggest that trophic and neurotrophic factors may be involved in pituitary function, thus suggesting a possible role of the trophic and neurotrophic factors in the normal development of pituitary gland and in the progression of pituitary adenomas. Additional studies might be necessary to better explain the biological role of these molecules in the development and progression of this type of tumor. In this review, in light of the available literature, data on the following neurotrophic factors are discussed: ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), transforming growth factors β (TGF‑β), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) which influence the proliferation and growth of pituitary adenomas

    Treatment of Solitary Painful Osseous Metastases with Radiotherapy, Cryoablation or Combined Therapy: Propensity Matching Analysis in 175 Patients

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    aim of this study was to identify outcomes in pain relief and quality of life in patients with a solitary painful osseous metastasis treated by radiotherapy, cryoablation or the combination using a propensity score matching study design

    Role of Genetic and Acquired Prothrombotic Risk Factors in Genesis of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

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    The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation, factor V G1691A (factor V Leiden) mutation, prothrombin G20210A mutation and 8 other laboratory values associated with increased thrombotic risk were analyzed in 40 patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL). The results were compared with those obtained from 120 controls not affected by SSHL. We found a statistically significant higher frequency of hyperhomocysteinemia in the SSHL group compared with controls, and that this was also associated with the presence of homozygosity for the MTHFR C677T mutation. The study results suggest that SSHL might be caused, among other factors, by a combination of these 2 variables. We suggest that this analysis of the MTHFR C677T mutation should be further investigated to establish the etiology of SSHL, and that the same analysis should be taken into account in those patients with high levels of homocysteine

    The botanical drug PBI-05204, a supercritical CO2 extract of Nerium oleander, sensitizes alveolar and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma to radiotherapy in vitro and in vivo

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    : Treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common a soft tissue sarcoma in childhood, provides intensive multimodal therapy, with radiotherapy (RT) playing a critical role for local tumor control. However, since RMS efficiently activates mechanisms of resistance to therapies, despite improvements, the prognosis remains still largely unsatisfactory, mainly in RMS expressing chimeric oncoproteins PAX3/PAX7-FOXO1, and fusion-positive (FP)-RMS. Cardiac glycosides (CGs), plant-derived steroid-like compounds with a selective inhibitory activity of the Na+/K+-ATPase pump (NKA), have shown antitumor and radio-sensitizing properties. Herein, the therapeutic properties of PBI-05204, an extract from Nerium oleander containing the CG oleandrin already studied in phase I and II clinical trials for cancer patients, were investigated, in vitro and in vivo, against FN- and FP-RMS cancer models. PBI-05204 induced growth arrest in a concentration dependent manner, with FP-RMS being more sensitive than FN-RMS, by differently regulating cell cycle regulators and commonly upregulating cell cycle inhibitors p21Waf1/Cip1 and p27Cip1/Kip1. Furthermore, PBI-05204 concomitantly induced cell death on both RMS types and senescence in FN-RMS. Notably, PBI-05204 counteracted in vitro migration and invasion abilities and suppressed the formation of spheroids enriched in CD133+ cancer stem cells (CSCs). PBI-05204 sensitized both cell types to RT by improving the ability of RT to induce G2 growth arrest and counteracting the RT-induced activation of both Non-Homologous End-Joining and homologous recombination DSBs repair pathways. Finally, the antitumor and radio-sensitizing proprieties of PBI-05204 were confirmed in vivo. Notably, both in vitro and in vivo evidence confirmed the higher sensitivity to PBI-05204 of FP-RMS. Thus, PBI-05204 represents a valid radio-sensitizing agent for the treatment of RMS, including the intrinsically radio-resistant FP-RMS

    Disease-specific and general health-related quality of life in newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients: The Pros-IT CNR study

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    Background: The National Research Council (CNR) prostate cancer monitoring project in Italy (Pros-IT CNR) is an observational, prospective, ongoing, multicentre study aiming to monitor a sample of Italian males diagnosed as new cases of prostate cancer. The present study aims to present data on the quality of life at time prostate cancer is diagnosed. Methods: One thousand seven hundred five patients were enrolled. Quality of life is evaluated at the time cancer was diagnosed and at subsequent assessments via the Italian version of the University of California Los Angeles-Prostate Cancer Index (UCLA-PCI) and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). Results: At diagnosis, lower scores on the physical component of the SF-12 were associated to older ages, obesity and the presence of 3+ moderate/severe comorbidities. Lower scores on the mental component were associated to younger ages, the presence of 3+ moderate/severe comorbidities and a T-score higher than one. Urinary and bowel functions according to UCLA-PCI were generally good. Almost 5% of the sample reported using at least one safety pad daily to control urinary loss; less than 3% reported moderate/severe problems attributable to bowel functions, and sexual function was a moderate/severe problem for 26.7%. Diabetes, 3+ moderate/severe comorbidities, T2 or T3-T4 categories and a Gleason score of eight or more were significantly associated with lower sexual function scores at diagnosis. Conclusions: Data collected by the Pros-IT CNR study have clarified the baseline status of newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. A comprehensive assessment of quality of life will allow to objectively evaluate outcomes of different profile of care

    Chyle leak following neck dissection: could radiotherapy be considered a management option?

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    Chyle leak after neck dissection is a relatively rare complication in head and neck cancer scenario.This review summarizes the basic knowledge of chyle leak underlying the potential benefit induced by low-dose radiation therapy and may serve as basis for future studies, necessary to optimize chyle leak management in head and neck cancer patient
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