7,406 research outputs found

    The τ\tau-W Coupling

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    We interpret the existing experimental knowledge on τ\tau decays in terms of the vector and axial vector couplings to the W boson, VτV_{\tau} and AτA_{\tau}. We deduce Vτ=1.00±0.09V_{\tau} = 1.00 \pm 0.09 and Aτ=1.00±0.09A_{\tau} = 1.00 \pm 0.09 in agreement with the Standard Model predictions of 11

    Virtual Supersymmetric Corrections in e^+e^- Annihilation

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    Depending on their masses, Supersymmetric particles can affect various measurements in Z decay. Among these are the total width (or consequent extracted value of αs\alpha_s), enhancement or suppression of various flavors, and left-right and forward-backward asymmetries. The latter depend on squark mass splittings and are, therefore, a possible test of the Supergravity related predictions. We calculate leading order corrections for these quantities considering in particular the case of light photino and gluino where the SUSY effects are enhanced. In this limit the effect on αs\alpha_s is appreciable, the effect on RbR_b is small, and the effect on the asymmetries is extremely small.Comment: 11 pages, LaTeX, 3 figures, revised, a reference adde

    Flux of Atmospheric Neutrinos

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    Atmospheric neutrinos produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere are of interest for several reasons. As a beam for studies of neutrino oscillations they cover a range of parameter space hitherto unexplored by accelerator neutrino beams. The atmospheric neutrinos also constitute an important background and calibration beam for neutrino astronomy and for the search for proton decay and other rare processes. Here we review the literature on calculations of atmospheric neutrinos over the full range of energy, but with particular attention to the aspects important for neutrino oscillations. Our goal is to assess how well the properties of atmospheric neutrinos are known at present.Comment: 68 pages, 26 figures. With permission from the Annual Review of Nuclear & Particle Science. Final version of this material is scheduled to appear in the Annual Review of Nuclear & Particle Science Vol. 52, to be published in December 2002 by Annual Reviews (http://annualreviews.org

    A compact and light-weight refractive telescope for the observation of extensive air showers

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    A general purpose instrument for imaging of Cherenkov light or fluorescence light emitted by extensive air showers is presented. Its refractive optics allows for a compact and light-weight design with a wide field-of-view of 12{\deg}. The optical system features a 0.5 m diameter Fresnel lens and a camera with 61 pixels composed of Winston cones and large-sized 6x6 mm photo sensors. As photo sensors, semi conductor light sensors (SiPMs) are utilized. The camera provides a high photon detection efficiency together with robust operation. The enclosed optics permit operation in regions of harsh environmental conditions. The low price of the telescope allows the production of a large number of telescopes and the application of the instrument in various projects, such as FAMOUS for the Pierre Auger Observatory, HAWC's Eye for HAWC or IceAct for IceCube. In this paper the novel design of this telescope and first measurements are presented.Comment: Submitted to JINST, second (minor) revisio

    Mass Dependent αS\alpha_S Evolution and the Light Gluino Existence

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    There is an intriguing discrepancy between \alpha_s(M_Z) values measured directly at the CERN Z0Z_0-factory and low-energy (at few GeV) measurements transformed to Q=MZ0Q=M_{Z_0} by a massless QCD \alpha_s(Q) evolution relation. There exists an attempt to reconcile this discrepancy by introducing a light gluino \gl in the MSSM. We study in detail the influence of heavy thresholds on \alpha_s(Q) evolution. First, we consruct the "exact" explicit solution to the mass-dependent two-loop RG equation for the running \alpha_s(Q). This solution describes heavy thresholds smoothly. Second, we use this solution to recalculate anew \alpha_s(M_Z) values corresponding to "low-energy" input data. Our analysis demonstrates that using {\it mass-dependent RG procedure} generally produces corrections of two types: Asymptotic correction due to effective shift of threshold position; Local threshold correction only for the case when input experiment lies in the close vicinity of heavy particle threshold: QexptMhQ_{expt} \simeq M_h . Both effects result in the effective shift of the \asmz values of the order of 10310^{-3}. However, the second one could be enhanced when the gluino mass is close to a heavy quark mass. For such a case the sum effect could be important for the discussion of the light gluino existence as it further changes the \gl mass.Comment: 13, Late

    Implications of LEP Results for SO(10) Grandunification with Two Intermediate Stages

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    We consider the breaking of the grand unification group SO(10)SO(10) to the standard model gauge group through several chains containing two intermediate stages. Using the values of the gauge coupling constants at scale MZM_Z derived from recent LEP data, we determine the range of their intermediate and unification scales. In particular, we identify those chains that permit new gauge structure at relatively low energy (1TeV)(\sim 1\, {\rm TeV}).Comment: (LATEX, 9 pages + 3 pages of figures not included) OITS-48

    Standard Model Physics at LEP

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    Selected topics on precision tests of the Standard Model of the Electroweak and the Strong Interaction at the LEP e+ee^+e^- collider are presented, including an update of the world summary of measurements of αs\alpha_s, representing the state of knowledge of summer 1999. This write-up of lecture notes consists of a reproduction of slides, pictures and tables, supplemented by a short descriptive text and a list of relevant references.Comment: lecture given at Intern. Summer School at Nijmegen, August 1999, 44 pages, 36 (mostly coloured) figures, LaTeX, needs crckapb.st

    Simulation of Atmospheric Muon and Neutrino Fluxes with CORSIKA

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    The fluxes of atmospheric muons and neutrinos are calculated by a three dimensional Monte Carlo simulation with the air shower code CORSIKA using the hadronic interaction models DPMJET, VENUS, GHEISHA, and UrQMD. For the simulation of low energy primary particles the original CORSIKA has been extended by a parametrization of the solar modulation and a microscopic calculation of the directional dependence of the geomagnetic cut-off functions. An accurate description for the geography of the Earth has been included by a digital elevation model, tables for the local magnetic field in the atmosphere, and various atmospheric models for different geographic latitudes and annual seasons. CORSIKA is used to calculate atmospheric muon fluxes for different locations and the neutrino fluxes for Kamioka. The results of CORSIKA for the muon fluxes are verified by an extensive comparison with recent measurements. The obtained neutrino fluxes are compared with other calculations and the influence of the hadronic interaction model, the geomagnetic cut-off and the local magnetic field on the neutrino fluxes is investigated.Comment: revtex, 19 pages, 19 Postscript figures, submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Space, Time and Color in Hadron Production Via e+e- -> Z0 and e+e- -> W+W-

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    The time-evolution of jets in hadronic e+e- events at LEP is investigated in both position- and momentum-space, with emphasis on effects due to color flow and particle correlations. We address dynamical aspects of the four simultanously-evolving, cross-talking parton cascades that appear in the reaction e+e- -> gamma/Z0 -> W+W- -> q1 q~2 q3 q~4, and compare with the familiar two-parton cascades in e+e- -> Z0 -> q1 q~2. We use a QCD statistical transport approach, in which the multiparticle final state is treated as an evolving mixture of partons and hadrons, whose proportions are controlled by their local space-time geography via standard perturbative QCD parton shower evolution and a phenomenological model for non-perturbative parton-cluster formation followed by cluster decays into hadrons. Our numerical simulations exhibit a characteristic `inside-outside' evolution simultanously in position and momentum space. We compare three different model treatments of color flow, and find large effects due to cluster formation by the combination of partons from different W parents. In particular, we find in our preferred model a shift of several hundred MeV in the apparent mass of the W, which is considerably larger than in previous model calculations. This suggests that the determination of the W mass at LEP2 may turn out to be a sensitive probe of spatial correlations and hadronization dynamics.Comment: 52 pages, latex, 18 figures as uu-encoded postscript fil

    Deep-Inelastic Final States in a Space-Time Description of Shower Development and Hadronization

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    We extend a quantum kinetic approach to the description of hadronic showers in space, time and momentum space to deep-inelastic epep collisions, with particular reference to experiments at HERA. We follow the history of hard scattering events back to the initial hadronic state and forward to the formation of colour-singlet pre-hadronic clusters and their decays into hadrons. The time evolution of the space-like initial-state shower and the time-like secondary partons are treated similarly, and cluster formation is treated using a spatial criterion motivated by confinement and a non-perturbative model for hadronization. We calculate the time evolution of particle distributions in rapidity, transverse and longitudinal space. We also compare the transverse hadronic energy flow and the distribution of observed hadronic masses with experimental data from HERA, and find encouraging results. The techniques developed in this paper may be applied in the future to more complicated processes such as eA, pp, pA and AA collisions.Comment: 44 pages plus 14 postscript figure
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