330 research outputs found

    Endocrinology of Transgender Medicine

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    Gender-affirming treatment of transgender people requires a multidisciplinary approach in which endocrinologists play a crucial role. The aim of this paper is to review recent data on hormonal treatment of this population and its effect on physical, psychological, and mental health. The Endocrine Society guidelines for transgender women include estrogens in combination with androgen-lowering medications. Feminizing treatment with estrogens and antiandrogens has desired physical changes, such as enhanced breast growth, reduction of facial and body hair growth, and fat redistribution in a female pattern. Possible side effects should be discussed with patients, particularly those at risk for venous thromboembolism. The Endocrine Society guidelines for transgender men include testosterone therapy for virilization with deepening of the voice, cessation of menses, and increases of muscle mass and facial and body hair. Owing to the lack of evidence, treatment of gender nonbinary people should be individualized. Young people may receive pubertal suspension, consisting of GnRH analogs, later followed by sex steroids. Options for fertility preservation should be discussed before any hormonal intervention. Morbidity and cardiovascular risk with cross-sex hormones is unchanged among transgender men and unclear among transgender women. Sex steroid-related malignancies can occur but are rare. Mental health problems such as depression and anxiety have been found to reduce considerably following hormonal treatment. Future studies should aim to explore the long-term outcome of hormonal treatment in transgender people and provide evidence as to the effect of gender-affirming treatment in the nonbinary population

    Endocrine treatment of aging transgender people

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    High quality empirical data assessing morbidity and mortality and cancer incidence among transgender people are almost non-existent. Sex hormone treatment of conditions in older non-transgender people might as yet be taken as the best available analogy to hormone administration to aging transgender persons. Testosterone administration to transgender men carries little risk with regard to cardiovascular disease and cancer. A dose adaptation may be needed in men with a high hematocrit or cardiac insufficiency. In transgender men, even after breast ablation, breast cancer may occur in residual mammary tissue. Treatment with estrogens (specifically oral ethinylestradiol) of transgender women, particularly in combination with progestins, carries a significant relative risk of developing cardiovascular disease (almost a twofold incidence compared to the general population). The dose of estrogens may have to be reduced with aging. A change from oral to probably safer transdermal estrogens must be considered. Though rare, tumors of the breasts, prostate, meninges and pituitary have been encountered. Based upon the available expertise, initiation of cross-sex hormone treatment in elderly subjects is without disproportionate risks

    Role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome in adults

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    Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome is an X-linked recessive androgen receptor disorder characterized by a female phenotype with an XY karyotype. Individuals affected by this syndrome have normal female external genitalia but agenesis of the Müllerian duct derivatives, that is, absence of the Fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, and the proximal part of the vagina, with presence of endoabdominal, labial, or inguinal testes. The estimated prevalence is between 1 and 5 in 100,000 genetic males. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome can be diagnosed as a result of mismatch between the prenatal sex prediction and the phenotype at birth, can be detected by chance, or remain undetected until investigations for primary amenorrhea. Imaging can be important both to diagnose the pathology and to localize gonads prior to surgical treatment. In this paper, we present three cases of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome in adult women of 34, 22, and 38 years old

    Gender ideology, same-sex peer group affiliation and the relationship between testosterone and dominance in adolescent boys and girls

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    Although the role of testosterone in the aetiology of social dominance is often suggested, surprisingly few studies have addressed the relationship between sex steroid hormones and dominance as a personality trait. In this paper, the relationship between testosterone and dominance is studied in a sample of adolescent boys and girls, taking into account the moderating role of gender ideology and same-sex peer group orientation. A direct association between free testosterone (FT) and dominance was found in girls but not in boys. In boys, masculine ideology moderated the relationship between FT and dominance, while in girls the relationship between FT and dominance was moderated by same-sex peer group affiliation
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