107 research outputs found

    Human Security of the Indigenous Peoples in the Arctic. The Sami Case

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    For many years, indigenous peoples, their rights, culture and identity have been neglected. This depressing statement also refers to the Sami who reside in the Arctic. This paper presents the understanding of the term ÔÇťindigenous peoplesÔÇŁ and a number of their rights, including the right to selfdetermination. Their implementation is necessary for human security as they empower indigenous peoples to make decisions in matters that affect them. The author examines the concept of human security and the threats to this security in the Arctic in particular to the Sami as well as the most important provisions in international legal documents regarding the rights of indigenous peoples which include references to human security

    Cities and human security

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    Cities have been researched mostly in terms of their economic, technological, and social value and significance. Despite some changes in this respect there is still a need to research cities as a fascinating phenomenon, also in respect of its capabilities to increase human security on a local and global scale. The article examines the role of cities for human security in the selected and representative fields such as sustainable development, human rights and environmental protection which are components of human security. The subject matter is indeed fascinating as fascinating are cities themselves. They are dynamic, energetic, innovative and constantly evolving. The general thesis of the article is that cities may and do greatly contribute to human security

    CRIMES COMMITTED IN SREBRENICA AND SARAJEVO BEFORE THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. RATKO MLADIC┬┤ CASE

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    Celem artyku┼éu jest przedstawienie prognozy wyroku Mi─Ödzynarodowego Trybuna┼éu Karnego ds. Zbrodni w b. Jugos┼éawii (MTKJ) w sprawie Ratko Mladicia, genera┼éa armii bo┼Ťniackich Serb├│w odpowiedzialnego za zbrodnie pope┼énione w Srebrenicy oraz Sarajewie. Po wskazaniu stawianych mu zarzut├│w autorka pr├│buje wykaza─ç, ┼╝e ÔÇô bior─ůc pod uwag─Ö dotychczasowe orzecznictwo MTKJ ÔÇô Mladi─ç zostanie uznany winnym zbrodni ludob├│jstwa w Srebrenicy oraz bezprawnych atak├│w i terroryzowania ludno┼Ťci cywilnej (te ostatnie jako zbrodnie wojenne). Mladi─ç jako szef sztabu g┼é├│wnego armii bo┼Ťniackich Serb├│w wydawa┼é rozkazy swoim podw┼éadnym (m.in. genera┼éom Krsticiowi i Galiciowi). W artykule zosta┼éy przeanalizowane ich sprawy w takim zakresie, w jakim maj─ů znaczenie dla sprawy Mladicia. Ten ostatni jako ich prze┼éo┼╝ony wydaj─ůcy im rozkazy powinien zosta─ç uznany winnym takich samych zbrodni jak oni, to jest tych wymienionych wy┼╝ej.The aim of this paper is to present the prognosis of the judgment of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in the Ratko Mladic┬┤ case. Mladic┬┤, who served as a general of the Bosnian Serb army, is responsible for the crimes committed in Srebrenica and Sarajevo. Based on the list of charges against Mladic┬┤, and taking into account the previous ICTY judgments, the authoress makes an attempts to prove that Mladic┬┤ will be convicted for crimes of genocide as well as unlawful attacks and terrorising the civilian population (the latter ones being war crimes). Moreover, General Mladic┬┤ as the chief of staff of the Bosnian Serb army was giving orders to his subordinates including generals Krstic┬┤ and Galic┬┤. An analysis of their cases has also been made for the purpose of the paper, to the extent useful and meaningful to the Mladic┬┤ case. It is then concluded that having been the Krtic┬┤ÔÇÖs and Galic┬┤ÔÇÖs commander, Mladic┬┤ should also be found guilty of the same crimes they have been found to have committed

    Komisja Budowania Pokoju Organizacji Narod├│w Zjednoczonych ÔÇô sukces czy pora┼╝ka?

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    Resolving conflicts and achieving durable peace is one of the main goals of the United Nations (UN). For many years the UN has been engaged in peace building efforts. Until the creation of the Peace Building Commission in 2006, however, no part of the UN system had been directly responsible for assistance to States in the post-conflict reality or in the efforts aimed at achieving durable peace. The Peace Building Commission managed to fill in this vacuum through systematic and institutional links between peace keeping, post-conflict operations and international network of assistance as well as activities undertaken by donors, including the World Bank. The aim of this article is to present the functioning of the UN Peace Building Commission: its rules of procedure, composition and the tasks is has been given. First, the normative aspect will be delineated, followed by brief characteristics of concrete cases in which the Commission has been engaged. Based on that analysis, the question whether the work of the Commission has been a success of a failure will be examined and an attempt will be made to determine factors that condition effective work of the Peace Building Commission.Rozwi─ůzywanie konflikt├│w i d─ů┼╝enie do ustanowienia trwa┼éego pokoju jest jednym z nadrz─Ödnych cel├│w Organizacji Narod├│w Zjednoczonych. Przez lata anga┼╝owa┼éa si─Ö ona w dzia┼éalno┼Ť─ç na rzecz budowania pokoju. Do chwili powstania Komisji Budowania Pokoju w 2006 r. ┼╝adna cz─Ö┼Ť─ç systemu ONZ nie by┼éa bezpo┼Ťrednio odpowiedzialna za pomoc krajom w okresie pokonfliktowym i w d─ů┼╝eniach do budowania trwa┼éego pokoju. Komisja Budowania Pokoju pozwoli┼éa wype┼éni─ç t─Ö luk─Ö przez zapewnienie instytucjonalnego i systematycznego po┼é─ůczenia mi─Ödzy utrzymywaniem pokoju, operacjami pokonfliktowymi oraz mi─Ödzynarodow─ů sieci─ů pomocy i dzia┼éaniami darczy┼äc├│w, w tym Banku ┼Üwiatowego. Celem artyku┼éu jest przedstawienie funkcjonowania Komisji Budowania Pokoju: zasady jej dzia┼éania, sk┼éad oraz zadania jej postawione. Po przedstawieniu strony normatywnej pokr├│tce opisano konkretne przypadki zaanga┼╝owania Komisji. Podj─Öto te┼╝ pr├│b─Ö odpowiedzi na tytu┼éowe pytanie ÔÇô czy dzia┼éalno┼Ť─ç Komisji to sukces czy pora┼╝ka oraz jakie czynniki maj─ů wp┼éyw na sprawne i skuteczne dzia┼éanie Komisji Budowania Pokoju

    MIASTA I NISZCZENIE ÔÇ×INNO┼ÜCIÔÇŁ

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    The aim of this article is to show that cities are very often attacked because of their characteristic of ÔÇśothernessÔÇÖ. ÔÇśThe otherÔÇÖ may be understood as other religion, other ethnicity, other culture, other political views or other people which is closely related to the idea of diversity, heterogeneity, pluralism and density as essential features of contemporary cities. The author examines theories explaining motives for destroying cities like the latter being a part of genocide or a distinct theory of urbicide. Finally the author proposes looking at the destruction of cities through the lens of destroying ÔÇśthe otherÔÇÖ and the possibility of a community. The research methods used include desk research and formal-legal analysis. Formal-legal analysis focuses on the jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and the desk research on the relevant literature at the intersection of urban studies and international studies.Celem artyku┼éu jest pokazanie, ┼╝e miasta s─ů bardzo cz─Östo atakowane ze wzgl─Ödu na swoj─ů cech─Ö ÔÇ×inno┼ŤciÔÇŁ. Przez ÔÇ×innegoÔÇŁ mo┼╝na rozumie─ç inn─ů religi─Ö, inn─ů etniczno┼Ť─ç, inn─ů kultur─Ö, inne pogl─ůdy polityczne lub inne osoby, co jest ┼Ťci┼Ťle zwi─ůzane z ide─ů r├│┼╝norodno┼Ťci, heterogeniczno┼Ťci, pluralizmu i g─Östo┼Ťci jako istotnych cech wsp├│┼éczesnych miast. Autorka analizuje teorie wyja┼Ťniaj─ůce motywy niszczenia miast, takie jak te traktuj─ůce niszczenie miast jako cz─Ö┼Ť─ç ludob├│jstwa lub jak odr─Öbna teoria miastob├│jstwa. Wreszcie autorka proponuje spojrzenie na niszczenie miast przez pryzmat niszczenia ÔÇ×innegoÔÇŁ i mo┼╝liwo┼Ťci wsp├│lnoty. Wykorzystywane metody badawcze to analiza tre┼Ťci oraz analiza formalno-prawna. Analiza formalno-prawna koncentruje si─Ö na orzecznictwie Mi─Ödzynarodowego Trybuna┼éu Karnego do spraw Zbrodni w b. Jugos┼éawii, a analiza tre┼Ťci na relewantnej literaturze z pogranicza studi├│w miejskich i studi├│w mi─Ödzynarodowych

    Human security, human rights and international law, and interactions between them

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    Autorka analizuje zwi─ůzek mi─Ödzy prawem mi─Ödzynarodowym a koncepcj─ů bez┬şpiecze┼ästwa ludzkiego, kt├│re pojawi┼éa si─Ö w latach 90-tych XX wieku. Artyku┼é jest podzielony na trzy cz─Ö┼Ťci. Cz─Ö┼Ť─ç 1 przedstawia poj─Öcie bezpiecze┼ästwa ludzkiego, jego genez─Ö i tre┼Ť─ç. Cz─Ö┼Ť─ç 2 analizuje relacje mi─Ödzy bezpiecze┼ästwem ludzkim a pra┬şwem mi─Ödzynarodowym i kr├│tko rozwa┼╝a najbardziej reprezentatywne aspekty prawa mi─Ödzynarodowego, w tym mi─Ödzynarodowego orzecznictwa, kt├│re w opinii autorki odzwierciedlaj─ů imperatywy bezpiecze┼ästwa ludzkiego. Wreszcie wnioski ko┼äcowe dostarczaj─ů odpowiedzi na postawione pytania i wskazuj─ů na warto┼Ť─ç dodan─ů koncep┬şcji bezpiecze┼ästwa ludzkiego. Pytania brzmi─ů nast─Öpuj─ůco: W jaki spos├│b bezpiecze┼ä┬şstwo ludzkie mo┼╝e wzmocni─ç dzia┼éania mi─Ödzynarodowe (dzia┼éania oparte na prawie mi─Ödzynarodowym)? Gdzie w prawie mi─Ödzynarodowym odzwierciedlone jest bez┬şpiecze┼ästwo ludzkie? Jaka jest rola prawa mi─Ödzynarodowego dla bezpiecze┼ästwa ludzkiego? Bior─ůc to wszystko pod uwag─Ö, jaka jest warto┼Ť─ç dodana przyj─Öcia kon┬şcepcji bezpiecze┼ästwa ludzkiego? Artyku┼é ten jest nieuchronnie interdyscyplinarny, poniewa┼╝ ┼é─ůczy perspektywy prawa mi─Ödzynarodowego i stosunk├│w mi─Ödzynarodo┬şwych.The author examines the nexus between international law and the concept of human security that emerged in the 1990s. The article proceeds in three parts. Part one outlines the concept of human security, its genesis and contents. Part two exam┬şines the nexus between human security and international law and briefly considers the most representative aspects of international law, including international jurisprudence, that, in the authorÔÇÖs opinion, reflect human security imperatives. Finally, conclusions provide answers to the questions posed and indicate the increased value of the human security concept. The questions read as follows: How can human security strengthen international actions (actions based on international law)? Where in international law is human security reflected? In other words, what aspects of international law reflect a human security-centered approach? What is the role of international law in human security? Taking all this into account, what is the added value of adopting the concept of human security? This article is inevitably interdisciplinary, as it combines the per┬şspectives of international law and international relations

    Udział i rola kobiet w negocjacjach pokojowych

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    The UN Security Council issued several resolutions over the last fifteen years regarding the role of women in conflict prevention and peacebuilding. Resolution 1325 (2000) came first and marked a watershed stressing the importance of equal and full participation of women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts and building and maintaining peace. The participation of women in peace negotiations or broader activities for peace and security is important, among other things, because there is a 35% greater chance that peace agreements negotiated by women will last at least 15 years. The article focuses on the UN Security Council instruments to ensure greater participation of women in maintaining peace and security and the results of mplementing these instruments.Rada Bezpiecze┼ästwa ONZ wyda┼éa na przestrzeni ostatnich pi─Ötnastu lat kilka rezolucji dotycz─ůcych roli kobiet w zapobieganiu konfliktom oraz budowaniu pokoju. Pierwsz─ů i prze┼éomow─ů by┼éa rezolucja 1325 (2000), w kt├│rej podkre┼Ťlono istotne znaczenie r├│wnego i pe┼énego uczestnictwa kobiet w zapobieganiu i rozwi─ůzywaniu konflikt├│w, budowaniu i utrzymaniu pokoju. Udzia┼é kobiet w negocjacjach pokojowych czy szerzej dzia┼éaniach na rzecz pokoju i bezpiecze┼ästwa jest istotny m.in. dlatego, ┼╝e istnieje o 35% wi─Öksza szansa, ┼╝e porozumienia pokojowe wynegocjowane z udzia┼éem kobiet potrwaj─ů co najmniej 15 lat. Artyku┼é skupia si─Ö na instrumentach Rady Bezpiecze┼ästwa ONZ w zakresie zapewnienia wi─Ökszego udzia┼éu kobiet w utrzymaniu pokoju i bezpiecze┼ästwa oraz rezultatach wdra┼╝ania tych instrument├│w

    Legal classification of the armed conflict in Ukraine in light of international humanitarian law

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    The armed conflict in Ukraine shows how difficult it sometimes is to clearly identify the nature of armed conflict. This is connected primarily with the lack of the full range of information on facts ÔÇô knowledge of which is essential for determining the degree of control by a third country (Russia) over non-State party to an armed conflict (Ukrainian separatists). It is especially difficult to make such an assessment while armed conflict continues and is undoubtedly easier when the judgment is made after the fact, when there is access to intelligence and testimony of witnesses. This paper presents a factual section which then concentrates on the legal framework for armed conflicts in general and examines the types of armed conflicts and international humanitarian law applicable to them. The legal ramifications are followed by an analysis of the events in the Crimea and eastern Ukraine in order to apply the law to the facts. The author attempts to establish whether the situation in the Crimea and eastern Ukraine is an international or non-international armed conflict and what law is applicable
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