15 research outputs found

    Home enteral nutrition in children—2010 nationwide survey of the polish society for clinical nutrition of children

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    Published epidemiologic data on the administration rates of enteral/parenteral home nutrition is very limited. The aim of this first nationwide study was to assess the availability of pediatric home enteral nutrition (HEN) services in Poland. The questionnaire was sent to all regional centers providing pediatric HEN services in Poland (n = 14). The analysis included the number of pediatric patients who received HEN in 2010, their demographic characteristics and geographical distribution. Furthermore, the distributions of indications and methods of enteral nutrition administration were analyzed, along with the reasons of withdrawal from the HEN program. The number and fraction of children receiving HEN increased in 2010, from 433 (11.34 per 1 million inhabitants) on January 1st to 525 (13.75) on December 31st. Marked differences were observed in geographical distribution of this parameter, from zero to up to 30 pediatric patients per 1 million inhabitants. Median age of patients was 6 years (range: 9 months–18 years). In most cases, HEN was prescribed due to neurological disorders (n = 337, 64.2%), and administered by means of gastrostomy (n = 450, 85.71%). This study revealed the dynamic development of pediatric HEN services in Poland but also documented their potential regional shortages

    Histamine Intolerance in Children: A Narrative Review

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    Histamine intolerance is defined as a disequilibrium of accumulated histamine and the capacity for histamine degradation. This clinical term addresses a non-immunologically mediated pathology when histamine ingested with food is not particularly high, however its degradation is decreased. This paper aims to provide a narrative review on etiopathology, epidemiology, possible diagnostic algorithms and diagnostic challenges of histamine intolerance in children. The clinical picture of histamine intolerance in children is similar to that observed in adults apart from male predominance found in paediatric patients. Both in children and adults, a histamine-reduced diet is typically the treatment of choice. Diamine oxidase supplementation offers another treatment option. There is no symptom or test pathognomonic for histamine intolerance. Nevertheless, manifestations of chronic gastrointestinal symptoms, measurements of diamine oxidase deficits, positive results of histamine provocation tests and improvement in symptoms with histamine-reduced diet considerably increase the probability of histamine intolerance diagnosis. These factors have been included in the proposed diagnostic algorithm for histamine intolerance. In children histamine intolerance most likely co-occurs with allergies and bowel diseases, which creates an additional diagnostic challenge. As the evidence for children is poor further research is needed the determine epidemiology, validate diagnostic algorithms and establish possible treatment options regarding histamine intolerance

    Changes in Body Composition and Physical Performance in Children with Excessive Body Weight Participating in an Integrated Weight-Loss Programme

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    The problem of overweight and obesity is a growing phenomenon in the entire population. Obesity is associated with many different metabolic disorders and is directly associated with an increased risk of death. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in body composition and physical fitness in children participating in an integrated weight-loss programme and to analyse the possible relationship between changes in body composition and improvements in fitness. Participants of the study were recruited from the “6–10–14 for Health”-multidisciplinary intervention programme for children aged 6 to 15 years old. A total of 170 patients qualified for the study, and 152 patients were enrolled. Statistically significant changes in body composition were found after the end of the intervention program, as measured by both BIA (bioimpedance) and DXA (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry). The differences in KPRT (Kasch Pulse Recovery Test) results at baseline and after intervention are positively correlated with the difference in fat mass between baseline and the after-intervention measure. Improving physical fitness is positively correlated with a decrease in FM (fat mass) and an increase in FFM (fat-free mass) measured in both absolute values and %. Both BIA and DXA methods proved to be equally useful for measuring body composition

    Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Enterally Fed Children with Severe Central Nervous System Impairment

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    Children with severe central nervous system (CNS) impairment are at risk of developing various degrees of nutritional deficit that require long-term nutritional intervention. Interventions are most often implemented through enteral nutrition (EN) using commercially manufactured feeds administered via gastro/jejunostomy or nasogastric or nasojejunal tubes. The modality of feeding—continuous feeding or bolus feeding—is dependent on the function of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly the efficiency of gastric emptying. In the literature, the relationship between this type of nutrition and the occurrence of hyperglycaemia is often discussed. In addition, children with chronic neurological diseases are vulnerable to disorders of many mechanisms of neurohormonal counter-regulation related to carbohydrate management, and due to limited verbal and logical contact, it is difficult to recognise the symptoms of hypoglycaemia in such patients. We aimed to assess the carbohydrate metabolism in children with severe CNS impairment, with enteral nutrition delivered via nasogastric, nasoenteral, or percutaneous tubes, based on continuous glycaemic monitoring (CGM) and the measurement of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Materials and methods: This prospective, observational study included nineteen patients (median (25–75 pc) age: 12.75 (6.17–15.55) years) with permanent CNS damage (Gross Motor Function Classification System V) receiving long-term tube enteral feeding, recruited from two paediatric university nutritional treatment centres. Patients with acute conditions and diagnosed diabetes were excluded. The nutritional status and nutritional support were analysed in all the inpatients in accordance with a uniform protocol. Using the CGM system (Medtronic iPro2), glycaemic curves were analysed, and in addition, HbA1C levels were determined in fourteen patients. CGM results were analysed using GlyCulator2.0. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistica version 11 software (StatSoft Inc. Tulsa, OK, USA). Results: More than half (11/19; 58%) of the patients were undernourished (BMI < 3 pc for age and gender), with the stature age being significantly lower than calendar age (5 (4.5–9) vs. 12.75 (6.17–15.55) years; p = 0.0010). The actual caloric intake was 50 (37.7–68.8) kcal/kg (median; 25–75 pc). In patients fed using the bolus method, the number of calories consumed per day was statistically significantly higher than in children subjected to a continuous feeding supply (56.00 (41.00–75.00) vs. 33.40 (26.70–50.00) kcal/kg BW (body weight; p = 0.0159). Decreases in blood glucose levels below the alarm level (<70 mg/dL) were recorded in fifteen patients (78.9%), including two patients with episodes of clinically significant hypoglycaemia (<54 mg/dL). The minimum and maximum glycaemic values recorded in any individual CGM records were 67 mg/dL (median) (minimum: 41 mg/dL; maximum: 77 mg/dL) and 146 (minimum: 114 mg/dL; maximum: 180 g/dL), respectively, for the entire recording. The maximum percentage of glycaemic concentrations > 140 mg/dL (TAR 140) recorded overnight in children with BMI ≥ 3 amounted to 1.6% vs. 0% in undernourished patients (TAR 140: 0.0 (0.00–1.6%) vs. 0% (0.00–0.0%; p = 0.0375); the percentage of glycaemic concentrations <70 mg/dL in the entire recording was comparable (0.77% (0.13–2.2%) vs. 1.8% (0.5–14.4%) vs. p = 0.2629). There was a positive correlation between the mean daily glucose recorded using the CGM method and patients’ BMI z-scores (R = 0.48, p = 0.0397). No statistically significant relationship was demonstrated between the occurrence of alarm hypoglycaemia events in the CGM records and undernutrition expressed by BMI z-scores (OR = 1.50 (95%CI: 0.16–13.75), the type of diet (for commercially manufactured OR = 0.36 (95%CI: 0.04–3.52), and the modality of diet delivery (for bolus feeding OR = 2.75 (95%CI: 0.28–26.61). Conclusions: In children with chronic OU damage, enteral feeding is associated with a risk of hypoglycaemia, but further studies involving a larger number of patients are needed, and CGM might be a useful tool to estimate the metabolic adequacy of enteral nutritional support in terms of glucose control
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