36 research outputs found

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis - an insidious enemy of the liver - case report

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    Background and introduction Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic liver disease with features of cholestasis as a result of inflammation and damage to the bile ducts, which can eventually lead to liver fibrosis and parenchymal failure at an advanced stage. Case Report A 22-year-old man was admitted urgently to the Department of Gastroenterology for complaints of abdominal pain, weakness and tarry stools. A panel of detailed examinations was performed to establish the diagnosis. An abdominal ultrasound scan showed significant enlargement of the liver and spleen. Gastroscopy  revealed variceal columns of II degree in the lower esophagus, which were cauterized. Laboratory tests confirmed anemia, reduced platelet and white blood cell counts, increased activity of ALT, ASP, GTP, ALP and slight elevation of total bilirubin in the blood. Based on the clinical disease manifestation and the results of diagnostic tests, cirrhosis of unknown origin was suspected. Subsequent magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) revealed the presence of multiple strictures in the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts and gave rise to the diagnosis of PSC. Pharmacological treatment was administered. Currently, the patient remains under the close care of the Transplant Clinic, where he undergoes regular checks of liver function, and endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) as required. Discussion with conclusions The case presented here shows that the course of PSC can be insidious and asymptomatic. Despite the absence of clinical symptoms, the disease can lead to the development of advanced cirrhosis even in patients of young age and be diagnosed as late as at the decompensated stage, when the only treatment option remains organ transplantation

    Neutrino-nucleus reactions in the delta resonance region

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    Reliable estimates of neutrino-nucleus reactions in the resonance-excitation region play an important role in many of the on-going and planned neutrino oscillation experiments. We study here neutrino-nucleus reactions in the delta-particle excitation region with the use of neutrino pion-production amplitudes calculated in a formalism in which the resonance contributions and the background amplitudes are treated on the same footing. Our approach leads to the neutrino-nucleus reaction cross sections that are significantly different from those obtained in the conventional approach wherein only the pure resonance amplitudes are taken into account. To assess the reliability of our formalism, we calculate the electron-nucleus scattering cross sections in the same theoretical framework; the calculated cross sections agree reasonably well with the existing data.Comment: 14 pages, 8 figures; typo, references and one figure adde

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure