73 research outputs found

    The advanced low-emissions catalytic-combuster program. Phase 1: Description and status

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    An overview of the ongoing program is presented. Objectives, plan, schedule, pollution and performance goals, catalyst advantages, present problems, and the present status of identified combustor concepts are discussed. The possible increase in upper atmosphere oxides of nitrogen (NOx) levels due to aircraft number density increases was predicted to adversely decrease ozone concentration levels. A technique for achieving low NOx emission levels was experimentally demonstrated with a lean, premixing prevaporizing flame-tube combustor

    High-pressure gas facilitates calibration of turbine flowmeters for liquid hydrogen

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    Nitrogen gas at a pressure of 60 atmospheres and ambient temperature facilitates the calibration of turbine flowmeters used for monitoring the flow of liquid hydrogen in cryogenic systems. Full-scale calibration factors can be obtained to an accuracy of 0.4 percent

    High-temperature, long-term drift of platinum-rhodium thermocouples

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    Contamination of thermocouples is minimized by use of pure alumina insulators and a controlled low-impurity-level high-vacuum environment. Average thermal electromotive force change for platinum-rhodium thermocouples was -2.8 deg K after 3700 hours exposure to a mean temperature of 1530 deg K

    Experimental and analytical sonic nozzle discharge coefficients for Reynolds numbers up to 8 x 10 to the 6th power

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    Sonic discharge coefficients are obtained for two different geometry flow nozzles using high-pressure nitrogen gas (100 atm) with significant real-gas flow corrections. Throat Reynolds number range extended up to 8 million. Discharge coefficients for both nozzles monotonically increase in value at the high throat Reynolds numbers. The 95-percent confidence band for each nozzle is shown. Analytical discharge coefficients for the continuous and finite radius of curvature nozzle are presented. These analytical results for the laminar and turbulent boundary-layer cases are compared to experimental values for sonic flow. Experimental values are also compared to values calculated from the best empirical curve fit equation for subsonic flow

    Stratospheric cruise emission reduction program

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    A recently implemented NASA effort specifically aimed at reducing cruise oxides of nitrogen from high-altitude aircraft is discussed. The desired emission levels and the combustor technology required to achieve them are discussed. A brief overview of the SCERP operating plan is given. Lean premixed-prevaporized combustion and some of the potential difficulties that are associated with applying this technique to gas turbine combustors are examined. Base technology was developed in several key areas. These fundamental studies are viewed as a requirement for successful implementation of the lean premixed combustion technique

    Protein profiling of the dimorphic, pathogenic fungus, Penicillium marneffei

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p><it>Penicillium marneffei </it>is a pathogenic fungus that afflicts immunocompromised individuals having lived or traveled in Southeast Asia. This species is unique in that it is the only dimorphic member of the genus. Dimorphism results from a process, termed phase transition, which is regulated by temperature of incubation. At room temperature, the fungus grows filamentously (mould phase), but at body temperature (37°C), a uninucleate yeast form develops that reproduces by fission. Formation of the yeast phase appears to be a requisite for pathogenicity. To date, no genes have been identified in <it>P. marneffei </it>that strictly induce mould-to-yeast phase conversion. In an effort to help identify potential gene products associated with morphogenesis, protein profiles were generated from the yeast and mould phases of <it>P. marneffei</it>.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Whole cell proteins from the early stages of mould and yeast development in <it>P. marneffei </it>were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Selected proteins were recovered and sequenced by capillary-liquid chromatography-nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. Putative identifications were derived by searching available databases for homologous fungal sequences. Proteins found common to both mould and yeast phases included the signal transduction proteins cyclophilin and a RACK1-like ortholog, as well as those related to general metabolism, energy production, and protection from oxygen radicals. Many of the mould-specific proteins identified possessed similar functions. By comparison, proteins exhibiting increased expression during development of the parasitic yeast phase comprised those involved in heat-shock responses, general metabolism, and cell-wall biosynthesis, as well as a small GTPase that regulates nuclear membrane transport and mitotic processes in fungi. The cognate gene encoding the latter protein, designated <it>RanA</it>, was subsequently cloned and characterized. The <it>P. marneffei </it>RanA protein sequence, which contained the signature motif of Ran-GTPases, exhibited 90% homology to homologous <it>Aspergillus </it>proteins.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>This study clearly demonstrates the utility of proteomic approaches to studying dimorphism in <it>P. marneffei</it>. Moreover, this strategy complements and extends current genetic methodologies directed towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of phase transition. Finally, the documented increased levels of RanA expression suggest that cellular development in this fungus involves additional signaling mechanisms than have been previously described in <it>P. marneffei</it>.</p

    Carcinoma Matrix Controls Resistance to Cisplatin through Talin Regulation of NF-kB

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    Extracellular matrix factors within the tumor microenvironment that control resistance to chemotherapeutics are poorly understood. This study focused on understanding matrix adhesion pathways that control the oral carcinoma response to cisplatin. Our studies revealed that adhesion of HN12 and JHU012 oral carcinomas to carcinoma matrix supported tumor cell proliferation in response to treatment with cisplatin. Proliferation in response to 30 µM cisplatin was not observed in HN12 cells adherent to other purified extracellular matrices such as Matrigel, collagen I, fibronectin or laminin I. Integrin β1 was important for adhesion to carcinoma matrix to trigger proliferation after treatment with cisplatin. Disruption of talin expression in HN12 cells adherent to carcinoma matrix increased cisplatin induced proliferation. Pharmacological inhibitors were used to determine signaling events required for talin deficiency to regulate cisplatin induced proliferation. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-kB reduced proliferation of talin-deficient HN12 cells treated with 30 µM cisplatin. Nuclear NF-kB activity was assayed in HN12 cells using a luciferase reporter of NF-kB transcriptional activity. Nuclear NF-kB activity was similar in HN12 cells adherent to carcinoma matrix and collagen I when treated with vehicle DMSO. Following treatment with 30 µM cisplatin, NF-kB activity is maintained in cells adherent to carcinoma matrix whereas NF-kB activity is reduced in collagen I adherent cells. Expression of talin was sufficient to trigger proliferation of HN12 cells adherent to collagen I following treatment with 1 and 30 µM cisplatin. Talin overexpression was sufficient to trigger NF-kB activity following treatment with cisplatin in carcinoma matrix adherent HN12 cells in a process disrupted by FAK siRNA. Thus, adhesions within the carcinoma matrix create a matrix environment in which exposure to cisplatin induces proliferation through the function of integrin β1, talin and FAK pathways that regulate NF-kB nuclear activity
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