785 research outputs found

    Top pair production cross sections and differential cross sections in the semi-leptonic channel using the CMS detector at √s = 7 and 8 TeV

    Get PDF
    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University LondonThe top quark has been extensively studied since the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) began operating in 2010. The excellent performance of both the LHC and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector has enabled complex analyses of many properties of the top quark. In this thesis inclusive and differential top pair (t t) production cross sections have been measured. Inclusive t t cross sections of 145.6 8.2 (stat.) +38:1 28:3 (syst.) pb and 237.4 1.9 (stat.) +20:4 16:9 (syst.) pb were measured at 7 TeV and 8 TeV center-ofmass collision energies using luminosities of 1 fb1and 19.7 fb1, respectively. These measurements were performed in the semi-leptonic channel by means of a maximum likelihood t of the lepton's pseudorapidity. The work in this thesis focuses specifically on the muon-plus-jets channel. The methods used for measuring the inclusive cross sections were built upon to measure differential cross sections with respect to event level observables. These observables include the missing transverse energy (Emiss T ) as well as some other kinematic distributions involving the jets, lepton and Emiss T in the decay. These results are unfolded to remove detector and selection effects and have uncertainties in the range of 3% to 15%. A low uncertainty is achieved by normalising the differential cross section using the total cross section. This leads to cancellations of some uncertainties. The results were compared with different Monte Carlo generators and with different input parameters. No significant deviations from predictions of the Standard Model were observed. This thesis also contains test beam results on CMS ECAL Endcap Lead Tungstate (PbWO4) crystals. These crystals had been damaged using various doses of proton irradiation. The damage for some crystals is expected to be roughly equivalent to 300 fb-1 of integrated luminosity at √s = 14 TeV. The energy resolution for these crystals was seen to reduce by close to a factor of 20.Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)

    Origin of seismic reflectors within carbonate-rich sediments from northeastern Australian margin

    Get PDF
    Journal ArticleWe use continuous velocity records from 12 sites and continuous density records from 9 sites from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 133 to examine both direct and indirect controls on seismic reflectors and depth-to-time conversion for the northeastern Australian margin. In these carbonate-rich sediments, the character of both velocity and density appears to be responding primarily to porosity variations and indirectly to lithologic or diagenetic variations. However, we find no consistent empirical relationship between velocity and porosity because of intrasite and intersite variations in style of cementation. Impedance, the product of velocity and density, is dominated by porosity change throughout the depth range studied, but the mechanism of this control changes: porosity influence on density is an important impedance control in the top 100 meters below seafloor (mbsf). while porosity influence on velocity is most important to deeper impedance variations. This difference arises from the relative insensitivity of velocity to porosity change at the high porosities of the uppermost 50 to 100 mbsf. Because velocity dominates most impedance variations and because velocity and density are locally well correlated, density can be omitted entirely from the calculation of most ODP synthetic seismograms without adverse effects. Depth-to-lime conversion can be based either on matching a synthetic seismogram to the seismic section or on a plot of two-way time vs. depth. Synthetic seismogram character is sensitive not only to the character of velocity variations caused by changes in porosity and diagenesis, but also to wavelet uncertainties and impedance interference patterns. Plots of two-way time vs. depth for these carbonate-dominated sediments are remarkably similar down to 250 mbsf and moderately predictable down to at least 450 mbsf

    Developing an archetype building stock model for new cities in Egypt

    Get PDF
    In Egypt, the development of the residential building sector is growing robustly increasing urban electrification which urges the need to improve the energy efficiency of the building stock. This study describes the development of ENCEM (Egyptian New Cities Energy Model), a residential bottom-up building stock model for the new cities in Egypt based on a proposed methodology of five steps that classified the building stock into 9 archetypes. An energy model was developed and simulated using EnergyPlus to identify the electricity demand, bills, and CO2 emissions for each archetype. The results showed that the end-use demand of the buildings varied depending on the housing typology, floor level, and building attachment type

    Bringing the building envelope into a safer, more integrated, sustainable built environment

    Get PDF
    Recent issues in construction have demonstrated the complexity of delivering a safe, integrated and sustainable building envelope. An expert community from research, the construction industry and policy was invited to come together for two workshops held in January 2022, to identify the key questions around the delivery of a safer, more integrated and sustainable building envelope. This briefing highlights the challenges currently faced in the built environment and sets out how a truly interdisciplinary building envelope network can address these challenges. UCL BERN, the Building Envelope Research Network, is a UCL cross-faculty research network established to help integrate knowledge of the building envelope into UCL’s research and teaching programmes

    Prevalence of sacral dysmorphia in a prospective trauma population: Implications for a "safe" surgical corridor for sacro-iliac screw placement

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Percutaneous sacro-iliac (SI) screw fixation represents a widely used technique in the management of unstable posterior pelvic ring injuries and sacral fractures. The misplacement of SI-screws under fluoroscopic guidance represents a critical complication for these patients. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of sacral dysmorphia and the radiographic anatomy of surgical S1 and S2 corridors in a representative trauma population.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Prospective observational cohort study on a consecutive series of 344 skeletally mature trauma patients of both genders enrolled between January 1, 2007, to September 30, 2007, at a single academic level 1 trauma center. Inclusion criteria included a pelvic CT scan as part of the initial diagnostic trauma work-up. The prevalence of sacral dysmorphia was determined by plain radiographic pelvic films and CT scan analysis. The anatomy of sacral corridors was analyzed on 3 mm reconstruction sections derived from multislice CT scan, in the axial, coronal, and sagittal plane. "Safe" potential surgical corridors at S1 and S2 were calculated based on these measurements.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Radiographic evidence of sacral dysmorphia was detected in 49 patients (14.5%). The prevalence of sacral dysmorphia was not significantly different between male and female patients (12.2% <it>vs</it>. 19.2%; <it>P </it>= 0.069). In contrast, significant gender-related differences were detected with regard to radiographic analysis of surgical corridors for SI-screw placement, with female trauma patients (<it>n </it>= 99) having significantly narrower corridors at S1 and S2 in all evaluated planes (axial, coronal, sagittal), compared to male counterparts (<it>n </it>= 245; <it>P </it>< 0.01). In addition, the mean S2 body height was higher in dysmorphic compared to normal sacra, albeit without statistical significance (<it>P </it>= 0.06), implying S2 as a safe surgical corridor of choice in patients with sacral dysmorphia.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>These findings emphasize a high prevalence of sacral dysmorphia in a representative trauma population and imply a higher risk of SI-screw misplacement in female patients. Preoperative planning for percutaneous SI-screw fixation for unstable pelvic and sacral fractures must include a detailed CT scan analysis to determine the safety of surgical corridors.</p

    Serum proteomic analysis focused on fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C virus infection

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Despite its widespread use to assess fibrosis, liver biopsy has several important drawbacks, including that is it semi-quantitative, invasive, and limited by sampling and observer variability. Non-invasive serum biomarkers may more accurately reflect the fibrogenetic process. To identify potential biomarkers of fibrosis, we compared serum protein expression profiles in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus infection and fibrosis.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Twenty-one patients with no or mild fibrosis (METAVIR stage F0, F1) and 23 with advanced fibrosis (F3, F4) were retrospectively identified from a pedigreed database of 1600 CHC patients. All samples were carefully phenotyped and matched for age, gender, race, body mass index, genotype, duration of infection, alcohol use, and viral load. Expression profiling was performed in a blinded fashion using a 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/LC-MS/MS platform. Partial least squares discriminant analysis and likelihood ratio statistics were used to rank individual differences in protein expression between the 2 groups.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Seven individual protein spots were identified as either significantly increased (α<sub>2</sub>-macroglobulin, haptoglobin, albumin) or decreased (complement C-4, serum retinol binding protein, apolipoprotein A-1, and two isoforms of apolipoprotein A-IV) with advanced fibrosis. Three individual proteins, haptoglobin, apolipoprotein A-1, and α<sub>2</sub>-macroglobulin, are included in existing non-invasive serum marker panels.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Biomarkers identified through expression profiling may facilitate the development of more accurate marker algorithms to better quantitate hepatic fibrosis and monitor disease progression.</p

    Effects of antiplatelet therapy on stroke risk by brain imaging features of intracerebral haemorrhage and cerebral small vessel diseases: subgroup analyses of the RESTART randomised, open-label trial

    Get PDF
    Background Findings from the RESTART trial suggest that starting antiplatelet therapy might reduce the risk of recurrent symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage compared with avoiding antiplatelet therapy. Brain imaging features of intracerebral haemorrhage and cerebral small vessel diseases (such as cerebral microbleeds) are associated with greater risks of recurrent intracerebral haemorrhage. We did subgroup analyses of the RESTART trial to explore whether these brain imaging features modify the effects of antiplatelet therapy

    Incidence and phenotypes of childhood-onset genetic epilepsies:a prospective population-based national cohort

    Get PDF
    Epilepsy is common in early childhood. In this age group it is associated with high rates of therapy-resistance, and with cognitive, motor, and behavioural comorbidity. A large number of genes, with wide ranging functions, are implicated in its aetiology, especially in those with therapy-resistant seizures. Identifying the more common single-gene epilepsies will aid in targeting resources, the prioritization of diagnostic testing and development of precision therapy. Previous studies of genetic testing in epilepsy have not been prospective and population-based. Therefore, the population-incidence of common genetic epilepsies remains unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence and phenotypic spectrum of the most common single-gene epilepsies in young children, and to calculate what proportion are amenable to precision therapy. This was a prospective national epidemiological cohort study. All children presenting with epilepsy before 36 months of age were eligible. Children presenting with recurrent prolonged (&gt;10 min) febrile seizures; febrile or afebrile status epilepticus (&gt;30 min); or with clusters of two or more febrile or afebrile seizures within a 24-h period were also eligible. Participants were recruited from all 20 regional paediatric departments and four tertiary children’s hospitals in Scotland over a 3-year period. DNA samples were tested on a custom-designed 104-gene epilepsy panel. Detailed clinical information was systematically gathered at initial presentation and during follow-up. Clinical and genetic data were reviewed by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians and genetic scientists. The pathogenic significance of the genetic variants was assessed in accordance with the guidelines of UK Association of Clinical Genetic Science (ACGS). Of the 343 patients who met inclusion criteria, 333 completed genetic testing, and 80/333 (24%) had a diagnostic genetic finding. The overall estimated annual incidence of single-gene epilepsies in this well-defined population was 1 per 2120 live births (47.2/100 000; 95% confidence interval 36.9–57.5). PRRT2 was the most common single-gene epilepsy with an incidence of 1 per 9970 live births (10.0/100 000; 95% confidence interval 5.26–14.8) followed by SCN1A: 1 per 12 200 (8.26/100 000; 95% confidence interval 3.93–12.6); KCNQ2: 1 per 17 000 (5.89/100 000; 95% confidence interval 2.24–9.56) and SLC2A1: 1 per 24 300 (4.13/100 000; 95% confidence interval 1.07–7.19). Presentation before the age of 6 months, and presentation with afebrile focal seizures were significantly associated with genetic diagnosis. Single-gene disorders accounted for a quarter of the seizure disorders in this cohort. Genetic testing is recommended to identify children who may benefit from precision treatment and should be mainstream practice in early childhood onset epilepsy
    corecore