31 research outputs found

    A proprietary black cumin oil extract (Nigella sativa) (BlaQmax¬ģ) modulates stress-sleep-immunity axis safely: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study

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    ObjectiveStress, sleep, and immunity are important interdependent factors that play critical roles in the maintenance of health. It has been established that stress can affect sleep, and the quality and duration of sleep significantly impact immunity. However, single drugs capable of targeting these factors are limited because of their multi-targeting mechanisms. The present study investigated the influence of a proprietary thymoquinone-rich black cumin oil extract (BCO-5) in modulating stress, sleep, and immunity.MethodsA randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled study was carried out on healthy volunteers with self-reported non-refreshing sleep issues (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ72), followed by supplementation with BCO-5/placebo at 200‚ÄČ mg/day for 90‚ÄČ days. Validated questionnaires, PSQI and PSS, were employed for monitoring sleep and stress respectively, along with the measurement of cortisol and melatonin levels. Immunity markers were analyzed at the end of the study.ResultsIn the BCO-5 group, 70% of the participants reported satisfaction with their sleep pattern on day 7 and 79% on day 14. Additionally, both inter- and intra- group analyses of the total PSQI scores and component scores (sleep latency, duration, efficiency, quality, and daytime dysfunction) on days 45 and 90 showed the effectiveness of BCO-5 in the improvement of sleep (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.05). PSS-14 analysis revealed a significant reduction in stress, upon both intra (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.001) and inter-group (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.001) comparisons. The observed reduction in stress among the BCO-5 group, with respect to the placebo, was significant with an effect size of 1.19 by the end of the study (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.001). A significant correlation was also observed between improved sleep and reduced stress as evident from PSQI and PSS. Furthermore, there was a significant modulation in melatonin, cortisol, and orexin levels. Hematological/immunological parameters further revealed the immunomodulatory effects of BCO-5.ConclusionBCO-5 significantly modulated the stress-sleep-immunity axis with no side effects and restored restful sleep

    Performance evaluation on an air-cooled heat exchanger for alumina nanofluid under laminar flow

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    This study analyzes the characteristics of alumina (Al2O3)/water nanofluid to determine the feasibility of its application in an air-cooled heat exchanger for heat dissipation for PEMFC or electronic chip cooling. The experimental sample was Al2O3/water nanofluid produced by the direct synthesis method at three different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt.%). The experiments in this study measured the thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluid with weight fractions and sample temperatures (20-60¬įC), and then used the nanofluid in an actual air-cooled heat exchanger to assess its heat exchange capacity and pressure drop under laminar flow. Experimental results show that the nanofluid has a higher heat exchange capacity than water, and a higher concentration of nanoparticles provides an even better ratio of the heat exchange. The maximum enhanced ratio of heat exchange and pressure drop for all the experimental parameters in this study was about 39% and 5.6%, respectively. In addition to nanoparticle concentration, the temperature and mass flow rates of the working fluid can affect the enhanced ratio of heat exchange and pressure drop of nanofluid. The cross-section aspect ratio of tube in the heat exchanger is another important factor to be taken into consideration

    Global burden of chronic respiratory diseases and risk factors, 1990‚Äď2019: an update from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

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    Background: Updated data on chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) are vital in their prevention, control, and treatment in the path to achieving the third UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a one-third reduction in premature mortality from non-communicable diseases by 2030. We provided global, regional, and national estimates of the burden of CRDs and their attributable risks from 1990 to 2019. Methods: Using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019, we estimated mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), prevalence, and incidence of CRDs, i.e. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, pneumoconiosis, interstitial lung disease and pulmonary sarcoidosis, and other CRDs, from 1990 to 2019 by sex, age, region, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI) in 204 countries and territories. Deaths and DALYs from CRDs attributable to each risk factor were estimated according to relative risks, risk exposure, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level input. Findings: In 2019, CRDs were the third leading cause of death responsible for 4.0 million deaths (95% uncertainty interval 3.6‚Äď4.3) with a prevalence of 454.6 million cases (417.4‚Äď499.1) globally. While the total deaths and prevalence of CRDs have increased by 28.5% and 39.8%, the age-standardised rates have dropped by 41.7% and 16.9% from 1990 to 2019, respectively. COPD, with 212.3 million (200.4‚Äď225.1) prevalent cases, was the primary cause of deaths from CRDs, accounting for 3.3 million (2.9‚Äď3.6) deaths. With 262.4 million (224.1‚Äď309.5) prevalent cases, asthma had the highest prevalence among CRDs. The age-standardised rates of all burden measures of COPD, asthma, and pneumoconiosis have reduced globally from 1990 to 2019. Nevertheless, the age-standardised rates of incidence and prevalence of interstitial lung disease and pulmonary sarcoidosis have increased throughout this period. Low- and low-middle SDI countries had the highest age-standardised death and DALYs rates while the high SDI quintile had the highest prevalence rate of CRDs. The highest deaths and DALYs from CRDs were attributed to smoking globally, followed by air pollution and occupational risks. Non-optimal temperature and high body-mass index were additional risk factors for COPD and asthma, respectively. Interpretation: Albeit the age-standardised prevalence, death, and DALYs rates of CRDs have decreased, they still cause a substantial burden and deaths worldwide. The high death and DALYs rates in low and low-middle SDI countries highlights the urgent need for improved preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic measures. Global strategies for tobacco control, enhancing air quality, reducing occupational hazards, and fostering clean cooking fuels are crucial steps in reducing the burden of CRDs, especially in low- and lower-middle income countries

    The global burden of cancer attributable to risk factors, 2010-19 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

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    Background Understanding the magnitude of cancer burden attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial for development of effective prevention and mitigation strategies. We analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 to inform cancer control planning efforts globally. Methods The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate cancer burden attributable to behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risk factors. A total of 82 risk-outcome pairs were included on the basis of the World Cancer Research Fund criteria. Estimated cancer deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 2019 and change in these measures between 2010 and 2019 are presented. Findings Globally, in 2019, the risk factors included in this analysis accounted for 4.45 million (95% uncertainty interval 4.01-4.94) deaths and 105 million (95.0-116) DALYs for both sexes combined, representing 44.4% (41.3-48.4) of all cancer deaths and 42.0% (39.1-45.6) of all DALYs. There were 2.88 million (2.60-3.18) risk-attributable cancer deaths in males (50.6% [47.8-54.1] of all male cancer deaths) and 1.58 million (1.36-1.84) risk-attributable cancer deaths in females (36.3% [32.5-41.3] of all female cancer deaths). The leading risk factors at the most detailed level globally for risk-attributable cancer deaths and DALYs in 2019 for both sexes combined were smoking, followed by alcohol use and high BMI. Risk-attributable cancer burden varied by world region and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), with smoking, unsafe sex, and alcohol use being the three leading risk factors for risk-attributable cancer DALYs in low SDI locations in 2019, whereas DALYs in high SDI locations mirrored the top three global risk factor rankings. From 2010 to 2019, global risk-attributable cancer deaths increased by 20.4% (12.6-28.4) and DALYs by 16.8% (8.8-25.0), with the greatest percentage increase in metabolic risks (34.7% [27.9-42.8] and 33.3% [25.8-42.0]). Interpretation The leading risk factors contributing to global cancer burden in 2019 were behavioural, whereas metabolic risk factors saw the largest increases between 2010 and 2019. Reducing exposure to these modifiable risk factors would decrease cancer mortality and DALY rates worldwide, and policies should be tailored appropriately to local cancer risk factor burden. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.Peer reviewe

    Safety and Efficacy of Ferula asafoetida in Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Study

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    Despite the availability of various synthetic drugs for the treatment of functional dyspepsia (FD), the side effects and their cost have always created a great interest in the search for novel natural alternatives for the management of gut disorders. The present contribution reports the safety and efficacy of the kitchen spice asafoetida (Ferula asafoetida) in FD for the first time. In the double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, 43 subjects diagnosed to have moderate to severe discomforts of nonulcer FD were randomized to receive hard-shell capsules (250‚ÄČmg √ó 2/day) of either placebo (n=22) or a food-grade formulation of asafoetida (Asafin) (n=21) for 30 days. When evaluated by a set of validated indexing tools (GSRS, GDSS, and NDI), almost 81% in the Asafin group showed significant (p < 0.01) improvement in the overall score and quality of life as compared to the placebo. At the end of the study, 66% of subjects in the Asafin group remained symptoms-free. Although the symptoms score improved significantly in both the groups (from -5.67 to -25.29 in Asafin group versus -1.55 to -6.0 in the placebo; p ‚ȧ 0.001), the relative percentage of subjects in the Asafin group with more than 80% reduction in various symptoms were: bloating (58%), appetite (69%), postprandial fullness (74%) motion sickness (75%), and digestion (77%) as compared to less than 10% nonspecific improvement in the placebo group. All the subjects remained safe with no adverse events or variations in haematological and biochemical parameters. The study was registered at http://ctri.nic.in/ (CTRI/2018/ 01/011149)

    Data_Sheet_1_A proprietary black cumin oil extract (Nigella sativa) (BlaQmax¬ģ) modulates stress-sleep-immunity axis safely: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study.docx

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    ObjectiveStress, sleep, and immunity are important interdependent factors that play critical roles in the maintenance of health. It has been established that stress can affect sleep, and the quality and duration of sleep significantly impact immunity. However, single drugs capable of targeting these factors are limited because of their multi-targeting mechanisms. The present study investigated the influence of a proprietary thymoquinone-rich black cumin oil extract (BCO-5) in modulating stress, sleep, and immunity.MethodsA randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled study was carried out on healthy volunteers with self-reported non-refreshing sleep issues (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ72), followed by supplementation with BCO-5/placebo at 200‚ÄČ mg/day for 90‚ÄČ days. Validated questionnaires, PSQI and PSS, were employed for monitoring sleep and stress respectively, along with the measurement of cortisol and melatonin levels. Immunity markers were analyzed at the end of the study.ResultsIn the BCO-5 group, 70% of the participants reported satisfaction with their sleep pattern on day 7 and 79% on day 14. Additionally, both inter- and intra- group analyses of the total PSQI scores and component scores (sleep latency, duration, efficiency, quality, and daytime dysfunction) on days 45 and 90 showed the effectiveness of BCO-5 in the improvement of sleep (p‚ÄČConclusionBCO-5 significantly modulated the stress-sleep-immunity axis with no side effects and restored restful sleep.</p
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