1,561 research outputs found

    CCL2 recruits inflammatory monocytes to facilitate breast-tumour metastasis

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    Macrophages abundantly found in the tumor microenvironment enhance malignancy(1). At metastatic sites a distinct population of metastasis associated macrophages (MAMs) promote tumor cell extravasation, seeding and persistent growth(2). Our study has defined the origin of these macrophages by showing Gr1+ inflammatory monocytes (IMs) are preferentially recruited to pulmonary metastases but not primary mammary tumors, a process also found for human IMs in pulmonary metastases of human breast cancer cells. The recruitment of these CCR2 (receptor for chemokine CCL2) expressing IMs and subsequently MAMs and their interaction with metastasizing tumor cells is dependent on tumor and stromal synthesized CCL2 (FigS1). Inhibition of CCL2/CCR2 signaling using anti-CCL2 antibodies blocks IM recruitment and inhibits metastasis in vivo and prolongs the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Depletion of tumor cell-derived CCL2 also inhibits metastatic seeding. IMs promote tumor cell extravasation in a process that requires monocyte-derived VEGF. CCL2 expression and macrophage infiltration are correlated with poor prognosis and metastatic disease in human breast cancer (Fig S2)(3-6). Our data provides the mechanistic link between these two clinical associations and indicates new therapeutic targets for treating metastatic breast disease

    Modeling Susceptibility versus Resistance in Allergic Airway Disease Reveals Regulation by Tec Kinase Itk

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    Murine models of allergic asthma have been used to understand the mechanisms of development and pathology in this disease. In addition, knockout mice have contributed significantly to our understanding of the roles of specific molecules and cytokines in these models. However, results can vary significantly depending on the mouse strain used in the model, and in particularly in understanding the effect of specific knockouts. For example, it can be equivocal as to whether specific gene knockouts affect the susceptibility of the mice to developing the disease, or lead to resistance. Here we used a house dust mite model of allergic airway inflammation to examine the response of two strains of mice (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) which differ in their responses in allergic airway inflammation. We demonstrate an algorithm that can facilitate the understanding of the behavior of these models with regards to susceptibility (to allergic airway inflammation) (Saai) or resistance (Raai) in this model. We verify that both C57BL/6 and BALB/c develop disease, but BALB/c mice have higher Saai for development. We then use this approach to show that the absence of the Tec family kinase Itk, which regulates the production of Th2 cytokines, leads to Raai in the C57BL/6 background, but decreases Saai on the BALB/c background. We suggest that the use of such approaches could clarify the behavior of various knockout mice in modeling allergic asthma

    Extramedullary Hematopoiesis Generates Ly-6C(high) Monocytes That Infiltrate Atherosclerotic Lesions

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    BACKGROUND: Atherosclerotic lesions are believed to grow via the recruitment of bone marrow-derived monocytes. Among the known murine monocyte subsets, Ly-6C(high) monocytes are inflammatory, accumulate in lesions preferentially, and differentiate. Here we hypothesized that the bone marrow outsources the production of Ly-6C(high) monocytes during atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using murine models of atherosclerosis and fate-mapping approaches, we show that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) progressively relocate from the bone marrow to the splenic red pulp where they encounter GM-CSF and IL-3, clonally expand, and differentiate to Ly-6C(high) monocytes. Monocytes born in such extramedullary niches intravasate, circulate, and accumulate abundantly in atheromata. Upon lesional infiltration, Ly-6C(high) monocytes secrete inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and proteases. Eventually, they ingest lipids and become foam cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that extramedullary sites supplement the bone marrow’s hematopoietic function by producing circulating inflammatory cells that infiltrate atherosclerotic lesions

    Monocytes regulate the mechanism of T-cell death by inducing Fas-mediated apoptosis during bacterial infection.

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    Monocytes and T-cells are critical to the host response to acute bacterial infection but monocytes are primarily viewed as amplifying the inflammatory signal. The mechanisms of cell death regulating T-cell numbers at sites of infection are incompletely characterized. T-cell death in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) showed 'classic' features of apoptosis following exposure to pneumococci. Conversely, purified CD3(+) T-cells cultured with pneumococci demonstrated necrosis with membrane permeabilization. The death of purified CD3(+) T-cells was not inhibited by necrostatin, but required the bacterial toxin pneumolysin. Apoptosis of CD3(+) T-cells in PBMC cultures required 'classical' CD14(+) monocytes, which enhanced T-cell activation. CD3(+) T-cell death was enhanced in HIV-seropositive individuals. Monocyte-mediated CD3(+) T-cell apoptotic death was Fas-dependent both in vitro and in vivo. In the early stages of the T-cell dependent host response to pneumococci reduced Fas ligand mediated T-cell apoptosis was associated with decreased bacterial clearance in the lung and increased bacteremia. In summary monocytes converted pathogen-associated necrosis into Fas-dependent apoptosis and regulated levels of activated T-cells at sites of acute bacterial infection. These changes were associated with enhanced bacterial clearance in the lung and reduced levels of invasive pneumococcal disease

    Meeting the challenges of myocarditis: New opportunities for prevention, detection, and intervention-a report from the 2021 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute workshop

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    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a workshop of international experts to discuss new research opportunities for the prevention, detection, and intervention of myocarditis in May 2021. These experts reviewed the current state of science and identified key gaps and opportunities in basic, diagnostic, translational, and therapeutic frontiers to guide future research in myocarditis. In addition to addressing community-acquired myocarditis, the workshop also focused on emerging causes of myocarditis including immune checkpoint inhibitors and SARS-CoV-2 related myocardial injuries and considered the use of systems biology and artificial intelligence methodologies to define workflows to identify novel mechanisms of disease and new therapeutic targets. A new priority is the investigation of the relationship between social determinants of health (SDoH), including race and economic status, and inflammatory response and outcomes in myocarditis. The result is a proposal for the reclassification of myocarditis that integrates the latest knowledge of immunological pathogenesis to refine estimates of prognosis and target pathway-specific treatments

    Differential effects on inhibition of cholesterol absorption by plant stanol and plant sterol esters in apoE−/− mice

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    Aims 'Functional foods'; supplemented with plant sterol esters (PSE) and plant stanol esters (PSA) are therapeutic options for the management of hypercholesterolaemia. However, their effects on blood monocytes, endothelial function, atherogenesis, and sterol tissue concentrations are poorly understood. Methods and results Male apoE−/− mice (n= 30) were randomized to three different diets for 6 weeks (n= 10 per group): high-cholesterol (1.25%) western-type diet (WTD), WTD + 2% PSE, and WTD + 2% PSA. Both supplements reduced serum cholesterol. WTD + PSE resulted in increased plant sterol serum concentrations and increased inflammatory Ly-6C(high) monocyte numbers. WTD + PSA increased plant stanol serum concentrations and Ly-6C-monocyte numbers, but decreased vascular superoxide release, lipid hydroperoxides, and inflammatory cytokines in aortic tissue, in plasma, and in circulating monocytes. Despite reduced serum cholesterol concentrations, both supplements impaired endothelial vasodilation compared with WTD. WTD + PSA reduced the development of atherosclerotic lesions compared with WTD alone (12.7 ± 3.7 vs. 28.3 ± 3.5%), and WTD + PSE was less effective (17.5 ± 3.7%). WTD + PSE and WTD + PSA reduced the cholesterol content in the liver, but not in the brain. However, WTD + PSE and WTD + PSA increased plant sterol and plant stanol concentrations in the liver as well as in the brain. Conclusion PSE and PSA supplementation reduced serum cholesterol, but increased plant sterol and plant stanol concentrations. Elevated levels of PSE and PSA were associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased central nervous system depositions. Atherosclerotic lesion retardation was more pronounced in WTD + PSA, coinciding with higher regenerative monocyte numbers, decreased oxidative stress, and decreased inflammatory cytokines compared with WTD + PSE

    Measurement of the cross-section and charge asymmetry of WW bosons produced in proton-proton collisions at s=8\sqrt{s}=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    This paper presents measurements of the W+→Ό+ÎœW^+ \rightarrow \mu^+\nu and W−→Ό−ΜW^- \rightarrow \mu^-\nu cross-sections and the associated charge asymmetry as a function of the absolute pseudorapidity of the decay muon. The data were collected in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC and correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 20.2~\mbox{fb^{-1}}. The precision of the cross-section measurements varies between 0.8% to 1.5% as a function of the pseudorapidity, excluding the 1.9% uncertainty on the integrated luminosity. The charge asymmetry is measured with an uncertainty between 0.002 and 0.003. The results are compared with predictions based on next-to-next-to-leading-order calculations with various parton distribution functions and have the sensitivity to discriminate between them.Comment: 38 pages in total, author list starting page 22, 5 figures, 4 tables, submitted to EPJC. All figures including auxiliary figures are available at https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/PAPERS/STDM-2017-13

    Search for direct stau production in events with two hadronic tau-leptons in root s=13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector