1,977 research outputs found

    Multifocal myxoid liposarcoma: a rare and controversial entity-case report with literature review

    Get PDF
    Multifocal soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is a rare and controversial entity, accounting for about 1% of patients with extremity STS and 4.5% of patients with liposarcoma. Multifocal presentation can occur synchronously or metachronously and is defined as the presence of tumor at two or more anatomically separate sites before the manifestation of disease in sites where sarcomas usually metastasize (e.g., lungs, liver, bone). Myxoid liposarcoma is the predominant histological type in multifocal presentation. This matter is debated as to whether  this entity represent an unusual pattern of metastasis or multiple separate primary tumors as the differentiation between second primary and metastatic lesions has major clinical consequences. Recent literatures based on molecular biologic analysis of tumor clonal heterogeneity suggest metastatic nature. Multifocal myxoid liposarcoma has an aggressive clinical course with frequent recurrences and poor prognosis. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment with adjuvant chemo and radiotherapy. Herein we are reporting a case of metachronous multifocal myxoid liposarcoma with multiple tumor sites (bilateral breasts, anterior chest wall, anterior abdominal wall, right shoulder area, left thigh etc.) which developed after one year of lumpectomy of myxoid liposarcoma of left breast. A recent review of literature pertaining to its unusual metastatic character, imaging and pathologic features is made

    Stochastic mRNA Synthesis in Mammalian Cells

    Get PDF
    Individual cells in genetically homogeneous populations have been found to express different numbers of molecules of specific proteins. We investigated the origins of these variations in mammalian cells by counting individual molecules of mRNA produced from a reporter gene that was stably integrated into the cell's genome. We found that there are massive variations in the number of mRNA molecules present in each cell. These variations occur because mRNAs are synthesized in short but intense bursts of transcription beginning when the gene transitions from an inactive to an active state and ending when they transition back to the inactive state. We show that these transitions are intrinsically random and not due to global, extrinsic factors such as the levels of transcriptional activators. Moreover, the gene activation causes burst-like expression of all genes within a wider genomic locus. We further found that bursts are also exhibited in the synthesis of natural genes. The bursts of mRNA expression can be buffered at the protein level by slow protein degradation rates. A stochastic model of gene activation and inactivation was developed to explain the statistical properties of the bursts. The model showed that increasing the level of transcription factors increases the average size of the bursts rather than their frequency. These results demonstrate that gene expression in mammalian cells is subject to large, intrinsically random fluctuations and raise questions about how cells are able to function in the face of such noise

    Cancer cell adaptation to chemotherapy

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Tumor resistance to chemotherapy may be present at the beginning of treatment, develop during treatment, or become apparent on re-treatment of the patient. The mechanisms involved are usually inferred from experiments with cell lines, as studies in tumor-derived cells are difficult. Studies of human tumors show that cells adapt to chemotherapy, but it has been largely assumed that clonal selection leads to the resistance of recurrent tumors. METHODS: Cells derived from 47 tumors of breast, ovarian, esophageal, and colorectal origin and 16 paired esophageal biopsies were exposed to anticancer agents (cisplatin; 5-fluorouracil; epirubicin; doxorubicin; paclitaxel; irinotecan and topotecan) in short-term cell culture (6 days). Real-time quantitative PCR was used to measure up- or down-regulation of 16 different resistance/target genes, and when tissue was available, immunohistochemistry was used to assess the protein levels. RESULTS: In 8/16 paired esophageal biopsies, there was an increase in the expression of multi-drug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) following epirubicin + cisplatin + 5-fluorouracil (ECF) chemotherapy and this was accompanied by increased expression of the MDR-1 encoded protein, P-gp. Following exposure to doxorubicin in vitro, 13/14 breast carcinomas and 9/12 ovarian carcinomas showed >2-fold down-regulation of topoisomerase IIőĪ (TOPOIIőĪ). Exposure to topotecan in vitro, resulted in >4-fold down-regulation of TOPOIIőĪ in 6/7 colorectal tumors and 8/10 ovarian tumors. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that up-regulation of resistance genes or down-regulation in target genes may occur rapidly in human solid tumors, within days of the start of treatment, and that similar changes are present in pre- and post-chemotherapy biopsy material. The molecular processes used by each tumor appear to be linked to the drug used, but there is also heterogeneity between individual tumors, even those with the same histological type, in the pattern and magnitude of response to the same drugs. Adaptation to chemotherapy may explain why prediction of resistance mechanisms is difficult on the basis of tumor type alone or individual markers, and suggests that more complex predictive methods are required to improve the response rates to chemotherapy

    Recent Progress and Next Steps for the MATHUSLA LLP Detector

    Full text link
    We report on recent progress and next steps in the design of the proposed MATHUSLA Long Lived Particle (LLP) detector for the HL-LHC as part of the Snowmass 2021 process. Our understanding of backgrounds has greatly improved, aided by detailed simulation studies, and significant R&D has been performed on designing the scintillator detectors and understanding their performance. The collaboration is on track to complete a Technical Design Report, and there are many opportunities for interested new members to contribute towards the goal of designing and constructing MATHUSLA in time for HL-LHC collisions, which would increase the sensitivity to a large variety of highly motivated LLP signals by orders of magnitude.Comment: Contribution to Snowmass 2021 (EF09, EF10, IF6, IF9), 18 pages, 12 figures. v2: included additional endorser

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

    Get PDF
    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE ‚Äď on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation