333 research outputs found

    Casitas B-lineage lymphoma linker helix mutations found in myeloproliferative neoplasms affect conformation

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    Background: Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (Cbl or c-Cbl) is a RING ubiquitin ligase that negatively regulates protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) signalling. Phosphorylation of a conserved residue (Tyr371) on the linker helix region (LHR) between the substrate-binding and RING domains is required to ubiquitinate PTKs, thereby flagging them for degradation. This conserved Tyr is a mutational hotspot in myeloproliferative neoplasms. Previous studies have revealed that select point mutations in Tyr371 can potentiate transformation in cells and mice but not all possible mutations do so. To trigger oncogenic potential, Cbl Tyr371 mutants must perturb the LHR-substrate-binding domain interaction and eliminate PTK ubiquitination. Although structures of native and pTyr371-Cbl are available, they do not reveal how Tyr371 mutations affect Cbl’s conformation. Here, we investigate how Tyr371 mutations affect Cbl’s conformation in solution and how this relates to Cbl’s ability to potentiate transformation in cells. Results: To explore how Tyr371 mutations affect Cbl’s properties, we used surface plasmon resonance to measure Cbl mutant binding affinities for E2 conjugated with ubiquitin (E2–Ub), small angle X-ray scattering studies to investigate Cbl mutant conformation in solution and focus formation assays to assay Cbl mutant transformation potential in cells. Cbl Tyr371 mutants enhance E2–Ub binding and cause Cbl to adopt extended conformations in solution. LHR flexibility, RING domain accessibility and transformation potential are associated with the extent of LHR-substrate-binding domain perturbation affected by the chemical nature of the mutation. More disruptive mutants like Cbl Y371D or Y371S are more extended and the RING domain is more accessible, whereas Cbl Y371F mimics native Cbl in solution. Correspondingly, the only Tyr371 mutants that potentiate transformation in cells are those that perturb the LHR-substrate-binding domain interaction. Conclusions: c-Cbl’s LHR mutations are only oncogenic when they disrupt the native state and fail to ubiquitinate PTKs. These findings provide new insights into how LHR mutations deregulate c-Cbl

    Conformation of Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein in Solution

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    SummaryThe polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) is an RNA binding protein that normally functions as a regulator of alternative splicing but can also be recruited to stimulate translation initiation by certain picornaviruses. High-resolution structures of the four RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) that make up PTB have previously been determined by NMR. Here, we have used small-angle X-ray scattering to determine the low-resolution structure of the entire protein. Scattering patterns from full-length PTB and deletion mutants containing all possible sequential combinations of the RRMs were collected. All constructs were found to be monomeric in solution. Ab initio analysis and rigid-body modeling utilizing the high-resolution models of the RRMs yielded a consistent low-resolution model of the spatial organization of domains in PTB. Domains 3 and 4 were found to be in close contact, whereas domains 2 and especially 1 had loose contacts with the rest of the protein

    The architecture of amyloid-like peptide fibrils revealed by X-ray scattering, diffraction and electron microscopy

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    Structural analysis of protein fibrillation is inherently challenging. Given the crucial role of fibrils in amyloid diseases, method advancement is urgently needed. A hybrid modelling approach is presented enabling detailed analysis of a highly ordered and hierarchically organized fibril of the GNNQQNY peptide fragment of a yeast prion protein. Data from small-angle X-ray solution scattering, fibre diffraction and electron microscopy are combined with existing high-resolution X-ray crystallographic structures to investigate the fibrillation process and the hierarchical fibril structure of the peptide fragment. The elongation of these fibrils proceeds without the accumulation of any detectable amount of intermediate oligomeric species, as is otherwise reported for, for example, glucagon, insulin and [alpha]-synuclein. Ribbons constituted of linearly arranged protofilaments are formed. An additional hierarchical layer is generated via the pairing of ribbons during fibril maturation. Based on the complementary data, a quasi-atomic resolution model of the protofilament peptide arrangement is suggested. The peptide structure appears in a [beta]-sheet arrangement reminiscent of the [beta]-zipper structures evident from high-resolution crystal structures, with specific differences in the relative peptide orientation. The complexity of protein fibrillation and structure emphasizes the need to use multiple complementary methods

    The histone chaperones Vps75 and Nap1 form ring-like, tetrameric structures in solution

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    NAP-1 fold histone chaperones play an important role in escorting histones to and from sites of nucleosome assembly and disassembly. The two NAP-1 fold histone chaperones in budding yeast, Vps75 and Nap1, have previously been crystalized in a characteristic homodimeric conformation. In this study, a combination of small angle X-ray scattering, multi angle light scattering and pulsed electron–electron double resonance approaches were used to show that both Vps75 and Nap1 adopt ring-shaped tetrameric conformations in solution. This suggests that the formation of homotetramers is a common feature of NAP-1 fold histone chaperones. The tetramerisation of NAP-1 fold histone chaperones may act to shield acidic surfaces in the absence of histone cargo thus providing a ‘self-chaperoning’ type mechanism

    Molecular basis of histone tail recognition by human TIP5 PHD finger and bromodomain of the chromatin remodeling complex NoRC.

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    Tallant, C., et al., Structure 23, 80–92, January 6, 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.str.2014.10.017Binding of the chromatin remodeling complex NoRC to RNA complementary to the rDNA promoter mediates transcriptional repression. TIP5, the largest subunit of NoRC, is involved in recruitment to rDNA by interactions with promoter-bound TTF-I, pRNA, and acetylation of H4K16. TIP5 domains that recognize posttranslational modifications on histones are essential for recruitment of NoRC to chromatin, but how these reader modules recognize site-specific histone tails has remained elusive. Here, we report crystal structures of PHD zinc finger and bromodomains from human TIP5 and BAZ2B in free form and bound to H3 and/or H4 histones. PHD finger functions as an independent structural module in recognizing unmodified H3 histone tails, and the bromodomain prefers H3 and H4 acetylation marks followed by a key basic residue, KacXXR. Further low-resolution analyses of PHD-bromodomain modules provide molecular insights into their trans histone tail recognition, required for nucleosome recruitment and transcriptional repression of the NoRC complex.This work was supported by the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (grants BB/G023123/1 David Phillips Fellowship to A.C. and BB/J001201/1 to A.C.) and a Federation of European Biochemical Societies short-term fellowship (04-11-12-10 to C.T.). We are grateful to Dr. Dimitri Y. Chirgadze of the Crystallographic X-Ray Facility at the Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, and to the technical support at Diamond Light Source Synchrotron Facilities. We acknowledge support from the European Commission FP7 Programme under BioStruct-X (grant agreement 283570) for SAXS data collection at the EMBL (DESY). The SGC is a registered charity (No. 1097737) that receives funds from AbbVie, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Canadian Institutes for Health Research, Genome Canada, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen, Lilly Canada, the Novartis Research Foundation, the Ontario Ministry of Economic Development and Innovation, Pfizer, Takeda, and the Wellcome Trust (092809/Z/10/Z). E.V. is supported by a European Commission FP7 Marie Curie grant IDPbyNMR (contract 264257). P.F. is supported by a Welcome Trust Career Development Fellowship (095751/Z/11/Z)