595 research outputs found

    What may be learnt about the archaeology of islands from archaeologically derived models of the exploration of Polynesia, 1966-2001?

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    Polynesian archaeology is one regional specialization in the world-wide practice of archaeological investigations of islands, oceans and seas. It is timely to consider how Polynesian archaeology fits within that newly-articulated framework of theoretical and methodological advances concerned with islands. To do this, I examine the history of archaeologically-derived models of the exploration of Polynesia developed since the invention of radiocarbon dating

    The case of Heinrich Wilhelm Poll (1877-1939): A German-Jewish geneticist, eugenicist, twin researcher, and victim of the Nazis

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    This paper uses a reconstruction of the life and career of Heinrich Poll as a window into developments and professional relationships in the biological sciences in Germany in the period from the beginning of the twentieth century to the Nazi seizure of power in 1933. Poll's intellectual work involved an early transition from morphometric physical anthropology to comparative evolutionary studies, and also found expression in twin research - a field in which he was an acknowledged early pioneer. His advocacy of eugenics led to participation in state-sponsored committees convened to advise on social policy, one of which debated sterilisation and made recommendations that led eventually to the establishment of the notorious Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics. However, his status as a prominent geneticist and, in particular, as a eugenicist had an ironic and ultimately tragic dimension. Heinrich Poll was of Jewish birth, and this resulted in his career being destroyed by an application of the population policies he had helped put in place

    Understanding dental students’ use of feedback

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    Introduction Feedback can enhance learning and is thought to be highly valued by students; however, it is not clear from the literature how dental students actually use feedback. Aim This study aimed to explore how dental students use feedback in a variety of contexts. Methods Qualitative methods involving audio‐recorded focus groups were used to explore the use of feedback by undergraduate dental students studying at three UK dental schools. A purposive sampling strategy was used to ensure diverse representation across the undergraduate dental programmes in each of the schools. Results Six focus groups, involving a total of 72 students, were undertaken. Thematic analysis identified five main themes relating to the use of feedback: value, future applicability, accessibility, variability and understanding. The inter‐connectivity and interaction of the themes (along with their subthemes) were used to develop a model for optimising feedback with the aim of enhancing its potential use by students. Conclusion The use of feedback by students would appear to be strongly influenced by several factors. Understanding these factors and how they interlink may be helpful to education providers who are seeking to optimise their feedback processes

    Consensus in Guidelines for Evaluation of DSD by the Texas Children's Hospital Multidisciplinary Gender Medicine Team

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    The Gender Medicine Team (GMT), comprised of members with expertise in endocrinology, ethics, genetics, gynecology, pediatric surgery, psychology, and urology, at Texas Children's Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine formed a task force to formulate a consensus statement on practice guidelines for managing disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD) and for making sex assignments. The GMT task force reviewed published evidence and incorporated findings from clinical experience. Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to assess the quality of evidence presented in the literature for establishing evidence-based guidelines. The task force presents a consensus statement regarding specific diagnostic and therapeutic issues in the management of individuals who present with DSD. The consensus statement includes recommendations for (1) laboratory workup, (2) acute management, (3) sex assignment in an ethical framework that includes education and involvement of the parents, and (4) surgical management

    Abortion attitudes: An overview of demographic and ideological differences

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    Despite being a defining issue in the culture war, the relative importance of the psychological predictors of abortion attitudes are poorly understood. We address this oversight here by reviewing existing findings and providing new evidence for the demographic and ideological correlates of abortion support. Throughout our review, we integrate new analyses of several large-scale, cross-sectional, and longitudinal datasets to provide the most complete empirical examination of abortion attitudes to date. Our review and new analyses indicate that abortion support is increasing (modestly) over time in both the US and New Zealand. We also show that a plurality of respondents (43.8%) in the US indicate that they are “pro-choice” across various elective and traumatic scenarios, whereas only 14.8% report being consistently “pro-life” regardless of why an abortion is sought. Our review and new integrative analyses then demonstrate that age, religiosity, and conservatism correlate negatively, whereas Openness to Experience correlates positively, with abortion support. New analyses of heterosexual couples also reveal that women’s and men’s religiosity uniquely decreases their romantic partner’s abortion support. Finally, noting inconsistent gender differences in abortion support, we review evidence for the impact of traditional gender role attitudes and sexism on abortion support. Our review and theoretical analyses illustrate that, rather than misogyny, benevolent sexism—the belief that women should be cherished and protected—best explains abortion opposition. We conclude that demographic and ideological variables, along with attitudes that revere women and motherhood, continue to undermine women’s interpersonal, intergroup, and societal rights

    Digital play and the actualisation of the consumer imagination

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    In this article, the authors consider emerging consumer practices in digital virtual spaces. Building on constructions of consumer behavior as both a sense-making activity and a resource for the construction of daydreams, as well as anthropological readings of performance, the authors speculate that many performances during digital play are products of consumer fantasy. The authors develop an interpretation of the relationship between the real and the virtual that is better equipped to understand the movement between consumer daydreams and those practices actualized in the material and now also in digital virtual reality. The authors argue that digital virtual performances present opportunities for liminoid transformations through inversions, speculations, and playfulness acted out in aesthetic dramas. To illustrate, the authors consider specific examples of the theatrical productions available to consumers in digital spaces, highlighting the consumer imagination that feeds them, the performances they produce, and the potential for transformation in consumer-players

    Comparison of breast and bowel cancer screening uptake patterns in a common cohort of South Asian women in England

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    Background: Inequalities in uptake of cancer screening by ethnic minority populations are well documented in a number of international studies. However, most studies to date have explored screening uptake for a single cancer only. This paper compares breast and bowel cancer screening uptake for a cohort of South Asian women invited to undertake both, and similarly investigates these women's breast cancer screening behaviour over a period of fifteen years. Methods: Screening data for rounds 1, 2 and 5 (1989-2004) of the NHS breast cancer screening programme and for round 1 of the NHS bowel screening pilot (2000-2002) were obtained for women aged 50-69 resident in the English bowel screening pilot site, Coventry and Warwickshire, who had been invited to undertake breast and bowel cancer screening in the period 2000-2002. Breast and bowel cancer screening uptake levels were calculated and compared using the chi-squared test. Results: 72,566 women were invited to breast and bowel cancer screening after exclusions. Of these, 3,539 were South Asian and 69,027 non-Asian; 18,730 had been invited to mammography over the previous fifteen years (rounds 1 to 5). South Asian women were significantly less likely to undertake both breast and bowel cancer screening; 29.9% (n = 1,057) compared to 59.4% (n = 40,969) for non-Asians (p < 0.001). Women in both groups who consistently chose to undertake breast cancer screening in rounds 1, 2 and 5 were more likely to complete round 1 bowel cancer screening. However, the likelihood of completion of bowel cancer screening was still significantly lower for South Asians; 49.5% vs. 82.3% for non-Asians, p < 0.001. South Asian women who undertook breast cancer screening in only one round were no more likely to complete bowel cancer screening than those who decided against breast cancer screening in all three rounds. In contrast, similar women in the non-Asian population had an increased likelihood of completing the new bowel cancer screening test. The likelihood of continued uptake of mammography after undertaking screening in round 1 differed between South Asian religio-linguistic groups. Noticeably, women in the Muslim population were less likely to continue to participate in mammography than those in other South Asian groups. Conclusions: Culturally appropriate targeted interventions are required to reduce observed disparities in cancer screening uptakes

    Topological Orthoalgebras

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    We define topological orthoalgebras (TOAs) and study their properties. While every topological orthomodular lattice is a TOA, the lattice of projections of a Hilbert space is an example of a lattice-ordered TOA that is not a toplogical lattice. On the other hand, we show that every compact Boolean TOA is a topological Boolean algebra. We also show that a compact TOA in which 0 is an isolated point is atomic and of finite height. We identify and study a particularly tractable class of TOAs, which we call {\em stably ordered}: those in which the upper-set generated by an open set is open. This includes all topological OMLs, and also the projection lattices of Hilbert spaces. Finally, we obtain a topological version of the Foulis-Randall representation theory for stably ordered TOAsComment: 16 pp, LaTex. Minor changes and corrections in sections 1; more substantial corrections in section

    No Exit? Withdrawal Rights and the Law of Corporate Reorganizations

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    Bankruptcy scholarship is largely a debate about the comparative merits of a mandatory regime on one hand and bankruptcy by free design on the other. By the standard account, the current law of corporate reorganization is mandatory. Various rules that cannot be avoided ensure that investors’ actions are limited and they do not exercise their rights against specialized assets in a way that destroys the value of a business as a whole. These rules solve collective action problems and reduce the risk of bargaining failure. But there are costs to a mandatory regime. In particular, investors cannot design their rights to achieve optimal monitoring as they could in a system of bankruptcy by free design. This Article suggests that the academic debate has missed a fundamental feature of the law. Bankruptcy operates on legal entities, not on firms in the economic sense. For this reason, sophisticated investors do not face a mandatory regime at all. The ability of investors to place assets in separate entities gives them the ability to create specific withdrawal rights in the event the firm encounters financial distress. There is nothing mandatory about rules like the automatic stay when assets can be partitioned off into legal entities that are beyond the reach of the bankruptcy judge. Thus, by partitioning assets of one economic enterprise into different legal entities, investors can create a tailored bankruptcy regime. In this way, legal entities serve as building blocks that can be combined to create specific and varied but transparent investor withdrawal rights. This regime of tailored bankruptcy has been unrecognized and underappreciated and may be preferable to both mandatory and free design regimes. By allowing a limited number of investors to opt out of bankruptcy in a particular, discrete, and visible way, investors as a group may be able to both limit the risk of bargaining failure and at the same time enjoy the disciplining effect that a withdrawal right brings with it