70 research outputs found

    Optical Random Riemann Waves in Integrable Turbulence

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    We examine integrable turbulence (IT) in the framework of the defocusing cubic one-dimensional nonlinear Schr\"{o}dinger equation. This is done theoretically and experimentally, by realizing an optical fiber experiment in which the defocusing Kerr nonlinearity strongly dominates linear dispersive effects. Using a dispersive-hydrodynamic approach, we show that the development of IT can be divided into two distinct stages, the initial, pre-breaking stage being described by a system of interacting random Riemann waves. We explain the low-tailed statistics of the wave intensity in IT and show that the Riemann invariants of the asymptotic nonlinear geometric optics system represent the observable quantities that provide new insight into statistical features of the initial stage of the IT development by exhibiting stationary probability density functions

    Nonlinear spectral analysis of Peregrine solitons observed in optics and in hydrodynamic experiments

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    The data recorded in optical fiber [1] and in hydrodynamic [2] experiments reported the pioneering observation of nonlinear waves with spatiotemporal localization similar to the Peregrine soliton are examined by using nonlinear spectral analysis. Our approach is based on the integrable nature of the one-dimensional focusing nonlinear Schrodinger equation (1D-NLSE) that governs at leading order the propagation of the optical and hydrodynamic waves in the two experiments. Nonlinear spectral analysis provides certain spectral portraits of the analyzed structures that are composed of bands lying in the complex plane. The spectral portraits can be interpreted within the framework of the so-called finite gap theory (or periodic inverse scattering transform). In particular, the number N of bands composing the nonlinear spectrum determines the genus g = N - 1 of the solution that can be viewed as a measure of complexity of the space-time evolution of the considered solution. Within this setting the ideal, rational Peregrine soliton represents a special, degenerate genus 2 solution. While the fitting procedures employed in [1] and [2] show that the experimentally observed structures are quite well approximated by the Peregrine solitons, nonlinear spectral analysis of the breathers observed both in the optical fiber and in the water tank experiments reveals that they exhibit spectral portraits associated with more general, genus 4 finite-gap NLSE solutions. Moreover, the nonlinear spectral analysis shows that the nonlinear spectrum of the breathers observed in the experiments slowly changes with the propagation distance, thus confirming the influence of unavoidable perturbative higher order effects or dissipation in the experiments

    Inverse scattering transform analysis of rogue waves using local periodization procedure

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    The nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) stands out as the dispersive nonlinear partial differential equation that plays a prominent role in the modeling and understanding of the wave phenomena relevant to many fields of nonlinear physics. The question of random input problems in the one-dimensional and integrable NLSE enters within the framework of integrable turbulence, and the specific question of the formation of rogue waves (RWs) has been recently extensively studied in this context. The determination of exact analytic solutions of the focusing 1D-NLSE prototyping RW events of statistical relevance is now considered as the problem of central importance. Here we address this question from the perspective of the inverse scattering transform (IST) method that relies on the integrable nature of the wave equation. We develop a conceptually new approach to the RW classification in which appropriate, locally coherent structures are specifically isolated from a globally incoherent wave train to be subsequently analyzed by implementing a numerical IST procedure relying on a spatial periodization of the object under consideration. Using this approach we extend the existing classifications of the prototypes of RWs from standard breathers and their collisions to more general nonlinear modes characterized by their nonlinear spectra

    Space-time observation of the dynamics of soliton collisions in a recirculating optical fiber loop

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    We present experiments performed in a recirculating fiber loop in which we realize the single-shot observation of the space and time interaction of two and three bright solitons. The space-time evolutions observed in experiments provide clear evidence of a nearly-integrable nonlinear wave dynamics that can be easily interpreted within the framework of the inverse scattering transform (IST) method. In particular collisions between solitons are found to be almost perfectly elastic in the sense that they occur without velocity change and with only a position (time) shift quantitatively well described by numerical simulations of the integrable nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation. Additionally our experiments provide the evidence that the position (time) shifts arising from the interaction among three solitons are determined by elementary pairwise interactions, as it is well known in the IST theory

    Spontaneous emergence of rogue waves in partially coherent waves: a quantitative experimental comparison between hydrodynamics and optics

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    Rogue waves are extreme and rare fluctuations of the wave field that have been discussed in many physical systems. Their presence substantially influences the statistical properties of an incoherent wave field. Their understanding is fundamental for the design of ships and offshore platforms. Except for very particular meteorological conditions, waves in the ocean are characterised by the so-called JONSWAP (Joint North Sea Wave Project) spectrum. Here we compare two unique experimental results: the first one has been performed in a 270-meter wave tank and the other in optical fibers. In both cases, waves characterised by a JONSWAP spectrum and random Fourier phases have been launched at the input of the experimental device. The quantitative comparison, based on an appropriate scaling of the two experiments, shows a very good agreement between the statistics in hydrodynamics and optics. Spontaneous emergence of heavy tails in the probability density function of the wave amplitude is observed in both systems. The results demonstrate the universal features of rogue waves and provide a fundamental and explicit bridge between two important fields of research. Numerical simulations are also compared with experimental results

    Bound state soliton gas dynamics underlying the spontaneous modulational instability

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    We investigate theoretically the fundamental phenomenon of the spontaneous, noise-induced modulational instability (MI) of a plane wave. The long-term statistical properties of the noise-induced MI have been previously observed in experiments and in simulations but have not been explained so far. In the framework of inverse scattering transform (IST), we propose a model of the asymptotic stage of the noise-induced MI based on N-soliton solutions (N-SS) of the integrable focusing one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation (1D-NLSE). These N-SS are bound states of strongly interacting solitons having a specific distribution of the IST eigenvalues together with random phases. We use a special approach to construct ensembles of multi-soliton solutions with statistically large number of solitons N∼100. Our investigation demonstrates complete agreement in spectral (Fourier) and statistical properties between the long-term evolution of the condensate perturbed by noise and the constructed multi-soliton bound states. Our results can be generalised to a broad class of integrable turbulence problems in the cases when the wave field dynamics is strongly nonlinear and driven by solitons
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