49 research outputs found

    Charge Measurement of Cosmic Ray Nuclei with the Plastic Scintillator Detector of DAMPE

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    One of the main purposes of the DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is to measure the cosmic ray nuclei up to several tens of TeV or beyond, whose origin and propagation remains a hot topic in astrophysics. The Plastic Scintillator Detector (PSD) on top of DAMPE is designed to measure the charges of cosmic ray nuclei from H to Fe and serves as a veto detector for discriminating gamma-rays from charged particles. We propose in this paper a charge reconstruction procedure to optimize the PSD performance in charge measurement. Essentials of our approach, including track finding, alignment of PSD, light attenuation correction, quenching and equalization correction are described detailedly in this paper after a brief description of the structure and operational principle of the PSD. Our results show that the PSD works very well and almost all the elements in cosmic rays from H to Fe are clearly identified in the charge spectrum.Comment: 20 pages, 4 figure

    Research and Development for Near Detector Systems Towards Long Term Evolution of Ultra-precise Long-baseline Neutrino Experiments

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    With the discovery of non-zero value of θ13\theta_{13} mixing angle, the next generation of long-baseline neutrino (LBN) experiments offers the possibility of obtaining statistically significant samples of muon and electron neutrinos and anti-neutrinos with large oscillation effects. In this document we intend to highlight the importance of Near Detector facilities in LBN experiments to both constrain the systematic uncertainties affecting oscillation analyses but also to perform, thanks to their close location, measurements of broad benefit for LBN physics goals. A strong European contribution to these efforts is possible

    The Readthrough Isoform AQP4ex Is Constitutively Phosphorylated in the Perivascular Astrocyte Endfeet of Human Brain

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    AQP4ex is a recently discovered isoform of AQP4 generated by a translational readthrough mechanism. It is strongly expressed at the astrocyte perivascular endfeet as a component of the supramolecular membrane complex, commonly called orthogonal array of particles (OAP), together with the canonical isoforms M1 and M23 of AQP4. Previous site-directed mutagenesis experiments suggested the potential role of serine331 and serine335, located in the extended peptide of AQP4ex, in water channel activity by phosphorylation. In the present study we evaluated the effective phosphorylation of human AQP4ex. A small scale bioinformatic analysis indicated that only Ser335 is conserved in human, mouse and rat AQP4ex. The phosphorylation site of Ser335 was assessed through generation of phospho-specific antibodies in rabbits. Antibody specificity was first evaluated in binding phosphorylated peptide versus its unphosphorylated analog by ELISA, which was further confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis experiments. Western blot and immunofluorescence experiments revealed strong expression of phosphorylated AQP4ex (p-AQP4ex) in human brain and localization at the perivascular astrocyte endfeet in supramolecular assemblies identified by BN/PAGE experiments. All together, these data reveal, for the first time, the existence of a phosphorylated form of AQP4, at Ser335 in the extended sequence exclusive of AQP4ex. Therefore, we anticipate an important physiological role of p-AQP4ex in human brain water homeostasis