2 research outputs found

    Biapenem, a Carbapenem Antibiotic, Elicits Mycobacteria Specific Immune Responses and Reduces the Recurrence of Tuberculosis

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    ABSTRACT Tuberculosis (TB) still tops the list of global health burdens even after COVID-19. However, it will sooner transcend the current pandemic due to the prevailing risk of reactivation of latent TB in immunocompromised individuals. The indiscriminate misuse and overuse of antibiotics have resulted in the emergence of deadly drug-resistant variants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). This study aims to characterize the functionality of the carbapenem antibiotic-Biapenem (BPM) in generating long-lasting immunity against TB. BPM treatment significantly boosted the activation status of the innate immune arm-macrophages by augmenting p38 signaling. Macrophages further primed and activated the adaptive immune cells CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the lung and spleen of the infected mice model. Furthermore, BPM treatment significantly amplified the polarization of T lymphocytes toward inflammatory subsets, such as Th1 and Th17. The treatment also helped generate a long-lived central memory T-cell subset. The generation of central memory T lymphocyte subset upon BPM treatment in the murine model led to a significant curtailing in the recurrence of TB due to reactivation and reinfection. These results suggest the potentiality of BPM as a potent adjunct immunomodulator to improve host defense against M.tb by enriching long-term protective memory cells. IMPORTANCE Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) tops the list of infectious killers around the globe. The emergence of drug-resistant variants of M.tb has been a major hindrance toward realizing the “END TB” goal. Drug resistance has amplified the global burden toward the quest for novel drug molecules targeting M.tb. Host-directed therapy (HDT) offers a lucrative alternative to tackle emerging drug resistance and disease relapse by strengthening the host’s immunity. Through our present study, we have tried to characterize the functionality of the carbapenem antibiotic-Biapenem (BPM). BPM treatment significantly augmented long-lasting immunity against TB by boosting the innate and adaptive immune arms. The generation of long-lived central memory T lymphocyte subset significantly improved the disease outcome and provided sterilizing immunity in the murine model of TB. The present investigation's encouraging results have helped us depict BPM as a potent adjunct immunomodulator for treating TB

    Berberine governs NOTCH3/AKT signaling to enrich lung-resident memory T cells during tuberculosis.

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    Stimulation of naïve T cells during primary infection or vaccination drives the differentiation and expansion of effector and memory T cells that mediate immediate and long-term protection. Despite self-reliant rescue from infection, BCG vaccination, and treatment, long-term memory is rarely established against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) resulting in recurrent tuberculosis (TB). Here, we show that berberine (BBR) enhances innate defense mechanisms against M.tb and stimulates the differentiation of Th1/Th17 specific effector memory (TEM), central memory (TCM), and tissue-resident memory (TRM) responses leading to enhanced host protection against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant TB. Through whole proteome analysis of human PBMCs derived from PPD+ healthy individuals, we identify BBR modulated NOTCH3/PTEN/AKT/FOXO1 pathway as the central mechanism of elevated TEM and TRM responses in the human CD4+ T cells. Moreover, BBR-induced glycolysis resulted in enhanced effector functions leading to superior Th1/Th17 responses in human and murine T cells. This regulation of T cell memory by BBR remarkably enhanced the BCG-induced anti-tubercular immunity and lowered the rate of TB recurrence due to relapse and re-infection. These results thus suggest tuning immunological memory as a feasible approach to augment host resistance against TB and unveil BBR as a potential adjunct immunotherapeutic and immunoprophylactic against TB