37 research outputs found

    Face Anti-Spoofing by Learning Polarization Cues in a Real-World Scenario

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    Face anti-spoofing is the key to preventing security breaches in biometric recognition applications. Existing software-based and hardware-based face liveness detection methods are effective in constrained environments or designated datasets only. Deep learning method using RGB and infrared images demands a large amount of training data for new attacks. In this paper, we present a face anti-spoofing method in a real-world scenario by automatic learning the physical characteristics in polarization images of a real face compared to a deceptive attack. A computational framework is developed to extract and classify the unique face features using convolutional neural networks and SVM together. Our real-time polarized face anti-spoofing (PAAS) detection method uses a on-chip integrated polarization imaging sensor with optimized processing algorithms. Extensive experiments demonstrate the advantages of the PAAS technique to counter diverse face spoofing attacks (print, replay, mask) in uncontrolled indoor and outdoor conditions by learning polarized face images of 33 people. A four-directional polarized face image dataset is released to inspire future applications within biometric anti-spoofing field.Comment: 14pages,8figure

    TransFusionOdom: Interpretable Transformer-based LiDAR-Inertial Fusion Odometry Estimation

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    Multi-modal fusion of sensors is a commonly used approach to enhance the performance of odometry estimation, which is also a fundamental module for mobile robots. However, the question of \textit{how to perform fusion among different modalities in a supervised sensor fusion odometry estimation task?} is still one of challenging issues remains. Some simple operations, such as element-wise summation and concatenation, are not capable of assigning adaptive attentional weights to incorporate different modalities efficiently, which make it difficult to achieve competitive odometry results. Recently, the Transformer architecture has shown potential for multi-modal fusion tasks, particularly in the domains of vision with language. In this work, we propose an end-to-end supervised Transformer-based LiDAR-Inertial fusion framework (namely TransFusionOdom) for odometry estimation. The multi-attention fusion module demonstrates different fusion approaches for homogeneous and heterogeneous modalities to address the overfitting problem that can arise from blindly increasing the complexity of the model. Additionally, to interpret the learning process of the Transformer-based multi-modal interactions, a general visualization approach is introduced to illustrate the interactions between modalities. Moreover, exhaustive ablation studies evaluate different multi-modal fusion strategies to verify the performance of the proposed fusion strategy. A synthetic multi-modal dataset is made public to validate the generalization ability of the proposed fusion strategy, which also works for other combinations of different modalities. The quantitative and qualitative odometry evaluations on the KITTI dataset verify the proposed TransFusionOdom could achieve superior performance compared with other related works.Comment: Submitted to IEEE Sensors Journal with some modifications. This work has been submitted to the IEEE for possible publication. Copyright may be transferred without notice, after which this version may no longer be accessibl

    Efficacy and mechanism of Baicao Fuyanqing suppository on mixed vaginitis based on 16S rRNA and metabolomics

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    BackgroundMixed vaginitis is the infection of the vagina by at least two different pathogens at the same time, both of which contribute to an abnormal vaginal environment leading to signs and symptoms. Baicao Fuyanqing suppository (BCFYQ) is a Miao ethnomedicine, used to treat various vaginitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and possible mechanism of BCFYQ in the treatment of mixed vaginitis based on 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and metabonomics.MethodsEscherichia coli and Candida albicans were used to establish mixed vaginitis model in SD rats. Three groups of low, medium and high doses (0.18/0.36/0.64 g.kg-1) were established, and administered vaginally once a day for 6 consecutive days. After the last administration, vaginal pH and IL-1β, IL-2, IL-13 and IgA levels were measured, and the vaginal tissue was examined pathologically. In addition, the vaginal flora was characterised by 16S rRNA, and endogenous metabolites in the vaginal tissue were detected by UHPLC-Q-Exactive MS.ResultsCompared with the model group, BCFYQ can reduce the vaginal pH of rats, make it close to the normal group and improve the damaged vaginal epithelial tissue. The results of ELISA showed that BCFYQ decreased the levels of IL-1 β and IL-2 and increased the levels of IL-13 and IgA (P<0.05). In addition, BCFYQ may increase the abundance of vaginal flora, especially Lactobacillus. The differential metabolite enrichment pathway suggests that the therapeutic mechanism of BCFYQ is mainly related to lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism.ConclusionOur research shows that BCFYQ has a good therapeutic effect on mixed vaginitis. It repairs the damaged vaginal mucosa by regulating the vaginal flora and lipid metabolism disorders to improve the local immune function of the vagina and inhibit the growth and reproduction of pathogens

    17th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium: Work in Progress Sessions

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    The Table of Contents for the workshop is contained in 1996-027-00main.pdfDear Colleagues: This year marks the beginning of a new tradition within the Real-Time Systems Symposium, that of holding special sessions for the presentation of new and on-going projects in real-time systems. The prime purpose of these Work In Progress (WIP) sessions is to provide researchers in Academia and Industry an opportunity to discuss their evolving ideas and gather feedback thereon from the real-time community at large. The idea of holding these sessions is timely, and I am pleased to report that this year RTSS'96 WIP received 22 submissions, of which 14 have been accepted for presentation during the symposium and for inclusion in RTSS'96 WIP proceedings. Many people worked hard to make the idea of holding the WIP sessions a reality. In particular, I would like to thank Sang Son for his hard work in accommodating the WIP sessions within the busy schedule of RTSS'96. Also, I would like to thank all members of the RTSS'96 Program Committee, Al Mok and Doug Locke in particular, for their encouragement and constructive feedback regarding the organization of these sessions. Finally, I would like to thank all those who submitted their work to RTSS'96 WIP and those from RTSS'96 program committee who helped review these submissions. I hope these sessions will prove beneficial, both to the WIP presenters and to RTSS'96 attendees. Azer Bestavros RTSS'96 WIP Chair December 1996.IEEE-CS TC-RT

    Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)

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    In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure fl ux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defi ned as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (inmost higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium ) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the fi eld understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation it is imperative to delete or knock down more than one autophagy-related gene. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways so not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field

    Treatment Planning for Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy: Model and Heuristic Algorithms

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    BCR-ABL suppresses autophagy through ATF5-mediated regulation of mTOR transcription

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    The oncoprotein BCR-ABL transforms myeloid progenitor cells and is responsible for the development of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In transformed cells, BCR-ABL suppresses apoptosis as well as autophagy, a catabolic process in which cellular components are degraded by the lysosomal machinery. The mechanism by which BCR-ABL suppresses autophagy is not known. Here we report that in both mouse and human BCR-ABL-transformed cells, activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5), a pro-survival factor, suppresses autophagy but does not affect apoptosis. We find that BCR-ABL, through phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/FOXO4 signaling, transcriptionally upregulates ATF5 expression and that ATF5, in turn, stimulates transcription of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; also called mechanistic target of rapamycin), a well-established master negative-regulator of autophagy. Previous studies have shown that the BCR-ABL inhibitor imatinib mesylate induces both apoptosis and autophagy, and that the resultant autophagy modulates the efficiency by which imatinib kills BCR-ABL-transformed cells. We demonstrate that imatinib-induced autophagy is due to inhibition of the BCR-ABL/PI3K/AKT/FOXO4/ATF5/mTOR pathway that we have identified in this study
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