7,774 research outputs found

    Simulation technique for available bandwidth estimation

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    The paper proposes a method for measuring available bandwidth, based on testing network packets of various sizes (Variable Packet Size method, VPS). The boundaries of applicability of the model have been found, which are based on the accuracy of measurements of packet delays, also we have derived a formula of measuring the upper limit of bandwidth. The computer simulation has been performed and relationship between the measurement error of available bandwidth and the number of measurements has been found. Experimental verification with the use of RIPE Test Box measuring system has shown that the suggested method has advantages over existing measurement techniques. Pathload utility has been chosen as an alternative technique of measurement, and to ensure reliable results statistics by SNMP agent has been withdrawn directly from the router

    Ultracold collisions between two light indistinguishable diatomic molecules: elastic and rotational energy transfer in HD+HD

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    A close coupling quantum-mechanical calculation is performed for rotational energy transfer in a HD+HD collision at very low energy, down to the ultracold temperatures: T108T \sim 10^{-8} K. A global six-dimensional H2_2-H2_2 potential energy surface is adopted from a previous work [Boothroyd {\it et al.}, J. Chem. Phys., {\bf 116}, 666 (2002).] State-resolved integral cross sections σijij(εkin)\sigma_{ij\rightarrow i'j'}(\varepsilon_{kin}) of different quantum-mechanical rotational transitions ijijij\rightarrow i'j' in the HD molecules and corresponding state-resolved thermal rate coefficients kijij(T)k_{ij\rightarrow i'j'}(T) have been computed. Additionally, for comparison, H2_2+H2_2 calculations for a few selected rotational transitions have also been performed. The hydrogen and deuterated hydrogen molecules are treated as rigid rotors in this work. A pronounced isotope effect is identified in the cross sections of these collisions at low and ultracold temperatures.Comment: 9 pages, 9 figures. Accepted for publication in Physical Review

    Coordination of Cu(II) and Ni(II) in polymers imprinted so as to optimize amine chelate formation

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    Molecular imprinting has become an established technique. However, little was done on direct investigation of the sorbents produced. In the present work, en ESR method was used for the investigation of the complex formation processes within the sorbents imprinted with copper(II) and nickel(II). The sorbents were synthesized from a mixture of linear low molecular weight polyethyleneimine oligomers. The composition, structure and distribution of complexes in the resin phase were investigated. The effects of the synthesis conditions, loading degree and water content were examined. The presence of certain copper complexes was found to be a convenient characteristic of the imprinting efficiency. The optimum synthesis conditions for obtaining sorbents imprinted with copper(II) or nickel(II) were identified. The imprinting results in the improvement of the stability of the complexes and the selectivity and working capacity of the sorbents. The imprinted samples are also characterized by a more even distribution of chelating sites. The synthesis conditions and loading by ions allow for the regulation of the ratio between individual complexes and magnetic associates in the resin phase. This is a critical point on the future use of the metal containing imprinted sorbents as catalysts. (C) 2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd

    Predicting the solvation of organic compounds in aqueous environments: from alkanes and alcohols to pharmaceuticals

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    The development of accurate models to predict the solvation, solubility, and partitioning of nonpolar and amphiphilic compounds in aqueous environments remains an important challenge. We develop state-of-the-art group-interaction models that deliver an accurate description of the thermodynamic properties of alkanes and alcohols in aqueous solution. The group-contribution formulation of the statistical associating fluid theory based on potentials with a variable Mie form (SAFT-γ Mie) is shown to provide accurate predictions of the phase equilibria, including liquid–liquid equilibria, solubility, free energies of solvation, and other infinite-dilution properties. The transferability of the model is further exemplified with predictions of octanol–water partitioning and solubility for a range of organic and pharmaceutically relevant compounds. Our SAFT-γ Mie platform is reliable for the prediction of challenging properties such as mutual solubilities of water and organic compounds which can span over 10 orders of magnitude, while remaining generic in its applicability to a wide range of compounds and thermodynamic conditions. Our work sheds light on contradictory findings related to alkane–water solubility data and the suitability of models that do not account explicitly for polarity

    CMS endcap RPC gas gap production for upgrade

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    The CMS experiment will install a RE4 layer of 144 new Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) on the existing york YE3 at both endcap regions to trigger high momentum muons from the proton-proton interaction. In this paper, we present the detailed procedures used in the production of new RPC gas gaps adopted in the CMS upgrade. Quality assurance is enforced as ways to maintain the same quality of RPC gas gaps as the existing 432 endcap RPC chambers that have been operational since the beginning of the LHC operation

    Performance of the Gas Gain Monitoring system of the CMS RPC muon detector and effective working point fine tuning

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    The Gas Gain Monitoring (GGM) system of the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) muon detector in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment provides fast and accurate determination of the stability in the working point conditions due to gas mixture changes in the closed loop recirculation system. In 2011 the GGM began to operate using a feedback algorithm to control the applied voltage, in order to keep the GGM response insensitive to environmental temperature and atmospheric pressure variations. Recent results are presented on the feedback method used and on alternative algorithms

    Comprehensive analysis of draft genomes of two closely related pseudomonas syringae phylogroup 2b strains infecting mono- and dicotyledon host plants

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    Comparison of the prophage region in Pseudomonas syringae strain SM (A) with the corresponding regions in strains 1845 (B) and 2507 (C) using MAUVE software (Darling et al. 2010). (PNG 2118 kb

    The Upgrade of the CMS RPC System during the First LHC Long Shutdown

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    The CMS muon system includes in both the barrel and endcap region Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC). They mainly serve as trigger detectors and also improve the reconstruction of muon parameters. Over the years, the instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider gradually increases. During the LHC Phase 1 (~first 10 years of operation) an ultimate luminosity is expected above its design value of 10^34/cm^2/s at 14 TeV. To prepare the machine and also the experiments for this, two long shutdown periods are scheduled for 2013-2014 and 2018-2019. The CMS Collaboration is planning several detector upgrades during these long shutdowns. In particular, the muon detection system should be able to maintain a low-pT threshold for an efficient Level-1 Muon Trigger at high particle rates. One of the measures to ensure this, is to extend the present RPC system with the addition of a 4th layer in both endcap regions. During the first long shutdown, these two new stations will be equipped in the region |eta|<1.6 with 144 High Pressure Laminate (HPL) double-gap RPCs operating in avalanche mode, with a similar design as the existing CMS endcap chambers. Here, we present the upgrade plans for the CMS RPC system for the fist long shutdown, including trigger simulation studies for the extended system, and details on the new HPL production, the chamber assembly and the quality control procedures.Comment: 9 pages, 6 figures, presented by M.Tytgat at the XI workshop on Resistive Plate Chambers and Related Detectors (RPC2012), INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, February 5-10, 201

    Quenching of parapara-H2_2 with an ultra-cold anti-hydrogen atom Hˉ1s\bar{H}_{1s}

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    In this work we report the results concerning calculations for quantum-mechanical rotational transitions in molecular hydrogen, H2_2, induced by an ultra-cold ground state anti-hydrogen atom Hˉ1s\bar{H}_{1s}. The calculations are accomplished using a non-reactive close-coupling quantum-mechanical approach. The H2_2 molecule is treated as a rigid rotor. The total elastic scattering cross section σel(ϵ)\sigma_{el}(\epsilon) at energy ϵ\epsilon, state-resolved rotational transition cross sections σjj(ϵ)\sigma_{jj'}(\epsilon) between states jj and jj' and corresponding thermal rate coefficients kjj(T)k_{jj'}(T) are computed in the temperature range 0.004 K T \lesssim T \lesssim 4 K. Satisfactory agreement with other calculations (variational) has been obtained for σel(ϵ)\sigma_{el}(\epsilon).Comment: 24 pages, 3 tables, 8 figure
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