3,678 research outputs found

    Temperature stability of intersubband transitions in AlN/GaN quantum wells

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    Temperature dependence of intersubband transitions in AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown with molecular beam epitaxy is investigated both by absorption studies at different temperatures and modeling of conduction-band electrons. For the absorption study, the sample is heated in increments up to 400400^\circC. The self-consistent Schr\"odinger-Poisson modeling includes temperature effects of the band-gap and the influence of thermal expansion on the piezoelectric field. We find that the intersubband absorption energy decreases only by 6\sim 6 meV at 400400^\circC relative to its room temperature value

    A simple strand-specific RNA-Seq library preparation protocol combining the Illumina TruSeq RNA and the dUTP methods

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    Preserving the original RNA orientation information in RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) experiment is essential to the analysis and understanding of the complexity of mammalian transcriptomes. We describe herein a simple, robust, and time-effective protocol for generating strand-specific RNA-seq libraries suited for the Illumina sequencing platform. We modified the Illumina TruSeq RNA sample preparation by implementing the strand specificity feature using the dUTP method. This protocol uses low amounts of starting material and allows a fast processing within two days. It can be easily implemented and requires only few additional reagents to the original Illumina kit

    TCAD Analysis of Leakage Current and Breakdown Voltage in Small Pitch 3D Pixel Sensors

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    Small-pitch 3D pixel sensors have been developed to equip the innermost layers of the ATLAS and CMS tracker upgrades at the High Luminosity LHC. They feature 50 × 50 and 25 × 100 μm2 geometries and are fabricated on p-type Si-Si Direct Wafer Bonded substrates of 150 μm active thickness with a single-sided process. Due to the short inter-electrode distance, charge trapping effects are strongly mitigated, making these sensors extremely radiation hard. Results from beam test measurements of 3D pixel modules irradiated at large fluences (1016neq/cm2) indeed demonstrated high efficiency at maximum bias voltages of the order of 150 V. However, the downscaled sensor structure also lends itself to high electric fields as the bias voltage is increased, meaning that premature electrical breakdown due to impact ionization is a concern. In this study, TCAD simulations incorporating advanced surface and bulk damage models are used to investigate the leakage current and breakdown behavior of these sensors. Simulations are compared with measured characteristics of 3D diodes irradiated with neutrons at fluences up to 1.5 × 1016neq/cm2. The dependence of the breakdown voltage on geometrical parameters (e.g., the n+ column radius and the gap between the n+ column tip and the highly doped p++ handle wafer) is also discussed for optimization purposes

    Comparison of two interferon-gamma release assays (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube and T-SPOT.TB) in testing for latent tuberculosis infection among HIV-infected adults.

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    There is currently no 'gold standard' for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), and both the tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are used for diagnosis; the latter have a higher sensitivity than tuberculin skin tests for diagnosis of LTBI in HIV-infected individuals with lower CD4 counts. No evidence base exists for selection of IGRA methodology to identify LTBI among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the UK. We prospectively evaluated two commercially available IGRA methods (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube [QFG] and T-SPOT.TB) for testing LTBI among HIV-infected patients potentially nosocomially exposed to an HIV-infected patient with 'smear-positive' pulmonary tuberculosis. Among the exposed patients median CD4 count was 550 cells/µL; 105 (90%) of 117 were receiving antiretroviral therapy, of who 104 (99%) had an undetectable plasma HIV load. IGRAs were positive in 12 patients (10.3%); QFG positive in 11 (9.4%) and T-SPOT.TB positive in six (5.1%); both IGRAs were positive in five patients (4.3%). There was one indeterminate QFG and one borderline T-SPOT.TB result. Concordance between the two IGRAs was moderate (κ = 0.56, 95% confidence interval = 0.27-0.85). IGRAs were positive in only 4 (29%) of 14 patients with previous culture-proven tuberculosis. No patient developed tuberculosis during 20 months of follow-up

    GPON, the Ultimate Pertinent of Next Generation Triple-play Bandwidth Resolution, Journal of Telecommunications and Information Technology, 2011, nr 2

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    Optical transmission is getting more popular in the access network due to the increasing demand for bandwidth. New services like IP television (IPTV) transmission, video on demand (VoD) etc. over Internet together along high speed Internet access are confronting the demand of higher bandwidth at the customer end in today’s Ethernet network backbone. Even though today’s well deployed XDSL (i.e., VDSL/VDSL2+, SHDSL) solutions can satisfy bandwidth demand but are limited to the restriction regarding distance. Hereby, the suitable solution for high bandwidth demand with a long reach can be met by reaching optical cable to customer end directly. One of the possible ways would be to install passive optical network (PON). Gigabit PON (GPON) is the far-most advanced PON solution used by European and US providers while providers in Asia predominantly use EPON/GePON. This GPON is the basic technology to support the structure of the next-generation fiber to the home (FTTH) system. This paper provides an overview of such GPON solution associating its network architecture, transmission mechanisms and some key services

    Development of a new generation of 3D pixel sensors for HL-LHC

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    This paper covers the main technological and design aspects relevant to the development of a new generation of thin 3D pixel sensors with small pixel size aimed at the High-Luminosity LHC upgrades. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

    Neurogenesis Drives Stimulus Decorrelation in a Model of the Olfactory Bulb

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    The reshaping and decorrelation of similar activity patterns by neuronal networks can enhance their discriminability, storage, and retrieval. How can such networks learn to decorrelate new complex patterns, as they arise in the olfactory system? Using a computational network model for the dominant neural populations of the olfactory bulb we show that fundamental aspects of the adult neurogenesis observed in the olfactory bulb -- the persistent addition of new inhibitory granule cells to the network, their activity-dependent survival, and the reciprocal character of their synapses with the principal mitral cells -- are sufficient to restructure the network and to alter its encoding of odor stimuli adaptively so as to reduce the correlations between the bulbar representations of similar stimuli. The decorrelation is quite robust with respect to various types of perturbations of the reciprocity. The model parsimoniously captures the experimentally observed role of neurogenesis in perceptual learning and the enhanced response of young granule cells to novel stimuli. Moreover, it makes specific predictions for the type of odor enrichment that should be effective in enhancing the ability of animals to discriminate similar odor mixtures

    The vertical cloud structure of the West African monsoon: a 4 year climatology using CloudSat and CALIPSO

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    The West African summer monsoon (WAM) is an important driver of the global climate and locally provides most of the annual rainfall. A solid climatological knowledge of the complex vertical cloud structure is invaluable to forecasters and modelers to improve the understanding of the WAM. In this paper, 4 years of data from the CloudSat profiling radar and CALIPSO are used to create a composite zonal mean vertical cloud and precipitation structure for the WAM. For the first time, the near-coincident vertical radar and lidar profiles allow for the identification of individual cloud types from optically thin cirrus and shallow cumulus to congestus and deep convection. A clear diurnal signal in zonal mean cloud structure is observed for the WAM, with deep convective activity enhanced at night producing extensive anvil and cirrus, while daytime observations show more shallow cloud and congestus. A layer of altocumulus is frequently observed over the Sahara at night and day, extending southward to the coastline, and the majority of this cloud is shown to contain supercooled liquid in the top. The occurrence of deep convective systems and congestus in relation to the position of the African easterly jet is studied, but only the daytime cumulonimbus distribution indicates some influence of the jet position