1,979 research outputs found

    Analytical models for the dynamics of buildings

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    This thesis investigates the significance of in-plane floor flexibility on the dynamics of buildings, and develops analytical models for structures that have flexible floor diaphragms. Experience with past earthquakes demonstrates that this feature is particularly important for long, narrow buildings and buildings with stiff end walls. In the method developed in this study, the equations of motion and appropriate boundary conditions for various elements of the structure are written in a single coordinate system and then are solved exactly. One- and two-story buildings with end walls are analyzed by treating their floors and walls as bending and shear beams, respectively. The resulting equations of motion and the boundary conditions are solved to obtain the dynamic properties of the structure. The expected low torsional stiffness of the end walls or frames is confirmed by analysis of a single-story example structure. Study of a similar two-story building showed that the first two modes, dominated by the floor and the roof vibrations, make the largest contributions to the total base shear in the structure. Floors of multistory buildings with end walls (or frames) are idealized as equivalent, distributed beams while the walls or frames are treated as bending or shear beams. Analysis of a nine-story building showed that the structure possesses several lower modes in which floors vibrate essentially as pinned-pinned beams. Buildings with large numbers of uniform stories and frames (or walls) are treated as vertically-oriented anisotropic plates. It is concluded that the floors in such buildings can be assumed rigid for seismic analysis, since the modes involving floor deformations are not excited by uniform ground motion. The approach can be generalized further to study more complex structures. An example is the Imperial County Services Building, which has two and walls in the upper stories and several walls in the ground story. The analytical model of this building predicts several important features of the complex dynamic behavior of the structure

    An interventional study on functional outcome of combined anterior cruciate ligament and anterolateral ligament reconstruction

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    Background: The anterolateral ligament (ALL) is an important structure for rotational stability of knee joint after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Outcome of combined ACL and ALL reconstruction will change view of high demanding ACL tear cases.Methods: A hospital based prospective interventional study was done in Department of Orthopaedics, SMS Medical College, Jaipur to find the functional outcome of combined anterior cruciate ligament and anterolateral ligament reconstruction. A total of 45 patients underwent ACL and ALL reconstruction. Indications for a combined procedure were associated grade 3 pivot shifts, high level of sporting activity and pivoting sports. Patients were assessed pre- and post-operatively with objective and subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Lysholm score, and Tegner activity scale.Results: The mean follow up time was around 5 months. Two patients lost to follow up. Leaving 45 patients for final evaluation. At the last follow-up, all patients had full range of motion. The Lysholm, subjective IKDC, and objective IKDC scores were significantly improved (all p<0.0001). Pre-operatively, 38 patients had a grade 3 pivot shifts and 7 had a grade 2 according to the IKDC criteria. Post-operatively, 42 patients had a negative pivot shift (grade 0), and 3 patients were grade 1 (p<0.0001).Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a combined reconstruction can be an effective procedure without specific complications at a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Longer follow up is required to know any long term complications and functional outcome

    A Novel Technique For Enterocutaneous Fistula Closure- Local Transposition Flap

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    Enterocutaneous fistulae are one of the most dreaded complications of abdominal surgeries which may be due to the result of multiple causes like anastomotic failure, poor blood supply, or iatrogenic bowel injuries. These fistulae are classified based on their output. Most Low output fistulae usually close spontaneously but few remain patent and may require surgical intervention. We are presenting two of our cases where we have used the local transposition flap to cover the enterocutaneous fistulae successfully. It can serve as a good armour in the armamentarium of plastic surgeon

    Investigating the seasonal variability in source contribution to PM(2.5)and PM(10)using different receptor models during 2013-2016 in Delhi, India

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    The present work deals with the seasonal variations in the contribution of sources to PM(2.5)and PM(10)in Delhi, India. Samples of PM(2.5)and PM(10)were collected from January 2013 to December 2016 at an urban site of Delhi, India, and analyzed to evaluate their chemical components [organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble inorganic components (WSICs), and major and trace elements]. The average concentrations of PM(2.5)and PM(10)were 131 +/- 79 mu g m(-3)and 238 +/- 106 mu g m(-3), respectively during the entire sampling period. The analyzed and seasonally segregated data sets of both PM(2.5)and PM(10)were used as input in the three different receptor models, i.e., principal component analysis-absolute principal component score (PCA-APCS), UNMIX, and positive matrix factorization (PMF), to achieve conjointly corroborated results. The present study deals with the implementation and comparison of results of three different multivariate receptor models (PCA-APCS, UNMIX, and PMF) on the same data sets that allowed a better understanding of the probable sources of PM(2.5)and PM(10)as well as the comportment of these sources with respect to different seasons. PCA-APCS, UNMIX, and PMF extracted similar sources but in different contributions to PM(2.5)and PM10. All the three models extracted 7 similar sources while mutually confirmed the 4 major sources over Delhi, i.e., secondary aerosols, vehicular emissions, biomass burning, and soil dust, although the contribution of these sources varies seasonally. PCA-APCS and UNMIX analysis identified a less number of sources (besides mixed type) as compared to the PMF, which may cause erroneous interpretation of seasonal implications on source contribution to the PM mass concentration

    Assessment of prescription completeness and antibiotic consumption at a rural health and training centre, Delhi

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    Background: The prescription audit is a useful method to assess the doctors’ contribution to the rational use of drugs in a country. A prescription is considered complete when it covers all the parts of the prescription. The polypharmacy increased the risk of drug interaction, dispensing errors and confused the patients for dosage schedules. A prescription with the minimum number of drugs per prescription helps in rational pharmacotherapeutics. The objectives of this study were to describe the pattern and completeness of prescription at rural health and training center and to estimate antibiotic consumption at rural health and training center.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the current prescribing practice at RHTC. Data were collected in the two pharmacies of the rural hospital. A total of 612 prescriptions with the last refill were considered for the assessment.Results: The average number of drugs prescribed per prescription 3.53. The percentage of prescriptions in which an antibiotic was prescribed was 20%. The percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name and from an essential drug list was 71.5% and 98.7% respectively. The most commonly prescribed form of antibiotics was extended-spectrum penicillin.Conclusions: All the prescriptions were complete covered parts of prescriptions. The dosing errors were present in maximum prescriptions. The WHO prescribing indicators were within the limits, an average number of drugs per prescription suggests a practice of polypharmacy. The peak of the use of antibiotics was observed in September followed by January and November. The least use of antibiotics was in December followed by June.

    Congenital malaria: Is it really rare? A case report

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    A 7-day-old term male infant weighing 2.4 kg was admitted with fever, pallor, icterus, and splenomegaly for 3 days. The primi mother was treated for pyrexia in the last trimester. Investigation revealed anemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and thrombocytopenia and demonstrated Plasmodium vivax in peripheral blood smear and card test. C-reactive protein was raised and blood culture was sterile. The baby was responded well to intravenous (IV) artesunate. Recent studies suggest that congenital malaria (CM) is not as rare as previously thought. Cord blood shows greater parasitemia as compared to neonatal blood. Besides light microscopy, plasmodium antigen detection and polymerase chain reaction of blood may help in diagnosis. CM can be confused with toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex syndrome, and neonatal sepsis

    A community based study of NCD risk factors among adult population in Dehradun, India

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    Background: A Non-Communicable disease (NCD) is one which is non-infectious and non-transmissible among people. NCDs account for leading causes of death and disease burden worldwide. To decrease the burden of NCDs experts stress on the importance of prevention and control with respect to modifiable risk factors. The World Health Organization's World Health Report 2002 identified tobacco use, alcohol consumption, overweight, physical inactivity, high blood pressure and high cholesterol as the most important risk factors for NCDs.(1)  Aims & Objectives: 1. To know the prevalence of risk factors leading to NCDs in the study population. 2. To know the socio-demographic correlates associated with risk factors of NCDs. 3. To suggest appropriate recommendations regarding modifiable risk factors of NCDs in study population. Material & Methods: A Cross-sectional study, Community-based study among 18+ population in field practice areas of Community Medicine Department, SGRRIM&HS, Dehradun. Sample Size: 300 each in urban and rural, total 60. Results: The prevalence of Smoking was 11.3%, Smokeless tobacco use 10.5%, Alcohol use 13.2%, Unhealthy diet 99.5%, Low physical activity 0.8%, High BMI (? 25 kg/m2) 51.2%, above normal waist-hip ratio 57.0%, Raised blood pressure 58.5% and raised blood sugar 25.2%. Conclusion: Smoking is significantly associated with age, sex and occupation. Raised blood pressure is significantly associated with age, sex and social class
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