211 research outputs found

    gplas : a comprehensive tool for plasmid analysis using short-read graphs

    Get PDF
    aSummary: Plasmids can horizontally transmit genetic traits, enabling rapid bacterial adaptation to new environments and hosts. Short-read whole-genome sequencing data are often applied to large-scale bacterial comparative genomics projects but the reconstruction of plasmids from these data is facing severe limitations, such as the inability to distinguish plasmids from each other in a bacterial genome. We developed gplas, a new approach to reliably separate plasmid contigs into discrete components using sequence composition, coverage, assembly graph information and network partitioning based on a pruned network of plasmid unitigs. Gplas facilitates the analysis of large numbers of bacterial isolates and allows a detailed analysis of plasmid epidemiology based solely on short-read sequence data.Peer reviewe

    Duration of rectal colonization with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli: results of an open, dynamic cohort study in Dutch nursing home residents (2013–2019)

    Get PDF
    Background: In 2016, a study in a Dutch nursing home showed prolonged colonization duration of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESBL)-ST131 compared to ESBL-non-ST131. In this study, we assessed the duration of rectal ESBL-producing E. coli (ESBL-EC) colonization in residents in the same nursing home for an extended period of six years. We aimed to estimate the influence of a possible bias when follow up is started during an outbreak. Methods: Between 2013 and 2019, repetitive point prevalence surveys were performed by culturing rectal or faecal swabs from all residents. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was performed to calculate the median time to clearance of ESBL-EC with a log-rank analysis to test for differences between ESBL-ST131 and ESBL-non-ST131. Results: The study showed a median time to clearance of 13.0 months (95% CI 0.0–27.9) for ESBL-ST131 compared to 11.2 months (95% CI 4.8–17.6) for ESBL-non-ST131 (p = 0.044). In the subgroup analysis of residents who were ESBL-EC positive in their first survey, the median time to clearance for ST131 was 59.7 months (95% CI 23.7–95.6) compared to 16.2 months (95% CI 2.1–30.4) for ESBL-non-ST131 (p = 0.036). In the subgroup analysis of residents who acquired ESBL-EC, the median time to clearance for ST131 was 7.2 months (95% CI 2.1–12.2) compared to 7.9 months (95% CI 0.0–18.3) for ESBL-non-ST131 (p = 0.718). The median time to clearance in the ESBL-ST131 group was significantly longer in residents who were ESBL-ST131 colonised upon entering the study than in residents who acquired ESBL-ST131 during the study (p = 0.001). Conclusion: A prolonged colonization with ESBL-ST131 was only found in the subgroup who was ESBL-EC positive upon entering the study. The prolonged duration with ESBL-ST131 in the previous study was probably biased by factors that occured during (the start of) the outbreak

    A novel method to address the association between received dose intensity and survival outcome: benefits of approaching treatment intensification at a more individualised level in a trial of the European Osteosarcoma Intergroup

    Get PDF
    PURPOSE: There is lack of consensus on the prognostic value of received high dose intensity in osteosarcoma survivorship. Many studies have not shown a clear survival benefit when dose intensity is increased. The aim of this study is to go beyond chemotherapy intensification by arm-wide escalation of intended dose and/or compression of treatment schedule, while conversely addressing the relationship between treatment intensity and survival at the patient level. The study focusses on the difference in outcome results, based on a novel, progressively more individualised approach to dose intensity. // METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data from MRC BO06/EORTC 80931 randomised controlled trial for treatment of osteosarcoma was conducted. Three types of post hoc patient groups are formed using the intended regimen: the individually achieved cumulative dose and time on treatment, and the increase of individual cumulative dose over time. Event-free survival is investigated and compared in these three stratifications. // RESULTS: The strata of intended regimen and achieved treatment yields equivalent results. Received cumulative dose over time produces groups with evident different survivorship characteristics. In particular, it highlights a group of patients with an estimated 3-year event-free survival much larger (more than 10%) than other patient groups. This group mostly contains patients randomised to an intensified regimen. In addition, adverse events reported by that group show the presence of increased preoperative myelotoxicity. // CONCLUSIONS: The manuscript shows the benefits of analyzing studies by using longitudinal data, e.g. recorded per cycle. This has impact on the drafting of future trials by showing why such a level of detail is needed for both treatment and adverse event data. The novel method proposed, based on cumulative dose received over time, shows that longitudinal treatment data might be used to link survival outcome with drug metabolism. This is particularly valuable when pharmacogenetics data for metabolism of cytotoxic agents are not collected

    Tomosipo: fast, flexible, and convenient 3D tomography for complex scanning geometries in Python

    Get PDF
    Tomography is a powerful tool for reconstructing the interior of an object from a series of projection images. Typically, the source and detector traverse a standard path (e.g., circular, helical). Recently, various techniques have emerged that use more complex acquisition geometries. Current software packages require significant handwork, or lack the flexibility to handle such geometries. Therefore, software is needed that can concisely represent, visualize, and compute reconstructions of complex acquisition geometries. We present tomosipo, a Python package that provides these capabilities in a concise and intuitive way. Case studies demonstrate the power and flexibility of tomosipo

    Model-based evaluation of school- and non-school-related measures to control the COVID-19 pandemic

    Get PDF
    Background: In autumn 2020, many countries, including the Netherlands, are experiencing a second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Health policymakers are struggling with choosing the right mix of measures to keep the COVID-19 case numbers under control, but still allow a minimum of social and economic activity. The priority to keep schools open is high, but the role of school-based contacts in the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 is incompletely understood. We used a transmission model to estimate the impact of school contacts on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and to assess the effects of school-based measures, including school closure, on controlling the pandemic at different time points during the pandemic. Methods and Findings: The age-structured model was fitted to age-specific seroprevalence and hospital admission data from the Netherlands during spring 2020. Compared to adults older than 60 years, the estimated susceptibility was 23% (95%CrI 20-28%) for children aged 0 to 20 years and 61% (95%CrI 50%-72%) for the age group of 20 to 60 years. The time points considered in the analyses were (i) August 2020 when the effective reproduction number (R_e) was estimated to be 1.31 (95%CrI 1.15-2.07), schools just opened after the summer holidays and measures were reinforced with the aim to reduce R_e to a value below 1, and (ii) November 2020 when measures had reduced R_e to 1.00 (95%CrI 0.94-1.33). In this period schools remained open. Our model predicts that keeping schools closed after the summer holidays, in the absence of other measures, would have reduced R_e by 10% (from 1.31 to 1.18 (95%CrI 1.04-1.83)) and thus would not have prevented the second wave in autumn 2020. Reducing non-school-based contacts in August 2020 to the level observed during the first wave of the pandemic would have reduced R_e to 0.83 (95%CrI 0.75-1.10). Yet, this reduction was not achieved and the observed R_e in November was 1.00. Our model predicts that closing schools in November 2020 could reduce R_e from the observed value of 1.00 to 0.84 (95%CrI 0.81-0.90), with unchanged non-school based contacts. Reductions in R_e due to closing schools in November 2020 were 8% for 10 to 20 years old children, 5% for 5 to 10 years old children and negligible for 0 to 5 years old children. Conclusions: The impact of measures reducing school-based contacts, including school closure, depends on the remaining opportunities to reduce non-school-based contacts. If opportunities to reduce R_e with non-school-based measures are exhausted or undesired and R_e is still close to 1, the additional benefit of school-based measures may be considerable, particularly among the older school children.</jats:p

    Paternal origins and migratory episodes of domestic sheep.

    Get PDF
    The domestication and subsequent global dispersal of livestock are crucial events in human history, but the migratory episodes during the history of livestock remain poorly documented [1-3]. Here, we first developed a set of 493 novel ovine SNPs of the male-specific region of Y chromosome (MSY) by genome mapping. We then conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA, and whole-genome sequence variations in a large number of 595 rams representing 118 domestic populations across the world. We detected four different paternal lineages of domestic sheep and resolved, at the global level, their paternal origins and differentiation. In Northern European breeds, several of which have retained primitive traits (e.g., a small body size and short or thin tails), and fat-tailed sheep, we found an overrepresentation of MSY lineages y-HC and y-HB, respectively. Using an approximate Bayesian computation approach, we reconstruct the demographic expansions associated with the segregation of primitive and fat-tailed phenotypes. These results together with archaeological evidence and historical data suggested the first expansion of early domestic hair sheep and the later expansion of fat-tailed sheep occurred ∼11,800-9,000 years BP and ∼5,300-1,700 years BP, respectively. These findings provide important insights into the history of migration and pastoralism of sheep across the Old World, which was associated with different breeding goals during the Neolithic agricultural revolution

    High-low frequency interaction in alternating FPU alfa-chains

    No full text
    One of the problems of periodic FPU-chains with alternating large masses is whether signifi- cant interactions exist between the so-called (high frequency) optical and (low frequency) acoustic groups. We show that for ↵-chains with 2n particles we have significant interactions caused by external forcing of the acoustic modes by a stable or unstable optical normal mode. In the proofs an embedding theorem plays a part; the analysis is straightforward in the case that n is even, a di↵erent approach using invariant manifolds with symmetry is needed if n is odd. For -chains the interactions are characterised by parametric excitation, there are indications that interaction is negligible

    The map projection of portolan charts

    No full text
    The sudden appearance of portolan charts, realistic nautical charts of the Mediterranean and Black Sea, in the last quarter of the thirteenth century, is considered to be one of the most significant events in the history of cartography. Using analysis techniques available in geodesy, Roel Nicolai showed in dissertation that these charts are mosaics of regional charts that are considerably more accurate than had been assumed earlier. The good agreement of these regional charts with the Mercator map projection is even more remarkable. Map projections were unknown in the Middle Ages and the Mercator projection was developed some three centuries after the appearance of the oldest extant portolan chart. Therefore, virtually unanimous agreement exists among historians of cartography that its map projection must be coincidental. In this article, however, Nicolai shows, using probability calculus, that it is very unlikely that the map projection emerged as an unintentional by-product of the charts’ construction

    Profits and pitfalls of timescales in asymptotics

    No full text
    corecore