32 research outputs found

    Molecular Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Northern Territory, Australia

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    Emerging Infectious Disease's an open access journal in the public domain. All content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution.Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a globally recognized health threat; new strategies are needed to enhance AMR surveillance. The Northern Territory of Australia is unique in that 2 different first-line therapies, based primarily on geographic location, are used for gonorrhea treatment. We tested 1,629 N. gonorrhoeae nucleic acid amplification test-positive clinical samples, collected from regions where ceftriaxone plus azithromycin or amoxicillin plus azithromycin are recommended first-line treatments, by using 8 N. gonorrhoeae AMR PCR assays. We compared results with those from routine culture-based surveillance data. PCR data confirmed an absence of ceftriaxone resistance and a low level of azithromycin resistance (0.2%), and that penicillin resistance was <5% in amoxicillin plus azithromycin regions. Rates of ciprofloxacin resistance and penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae were lower when molecular methods were used. Molecular methods to detect N. gonorrhoeae AMR can increase the evidence base for treatment guidelines, particularly in settings where culture-based surveillance is limited

    Riociguat treatment in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: Final safety data from the EXPERT registry

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    Objective: The soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator riociguat is approved for the treatment of adult patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and inoperable or persistent/recurrent chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) following Phase

    Tiwi sexual health program 2002 - 2005 - a case study

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    Tiwi sexual health program 2002 - 2005 - a case study

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    At the invitation of Tiwi Health Board (THB), staff of the AIDS/STD Unit conducted a comprehensive situation analysis of sexual health program activity on the Tiwi Islands in June 2000.Date:2007-1

    An assessment of the effectiveness of the Tiwi Sexual Health Program 2002-2005.

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    To describe the key elements of a comprehensive sexual health program implemented between 2002 and 2005 in remote Indigenous communities on the Tiwi Islands and to assess its effectiveness in reducing rates of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A descriptive study using STI notification and laboratory testing data to analyse the occurrence of STI diagnoses overtime compared to nearby similar regions. Over the four years' of program implementation, the numbers of tests and individuals tested increased substantially and were sustained. The notification rate of chlamydia decreased from 1,581.3 to 80.0 per 100,000, that of gonorrhoea from 2,919.2 to 1,159.7 and that of syphilis from 1,743.4 to 200.0, representing a decrease of 94.9%, 60.2% and 88.5%, respectively. No similar trends in notification rates were observed in nearby regions. During the same time, the positivity rate (the number of positive tests divided by the total number of tests) of nucleic acid tests for gonorrhoea decreased from 5.9% (56/952) to 3.9% (39/1,004), and that for chlamydia decreased from 5.2% (38/1,003) to 0.3% (3/1,007), representing a decrease of 33.9% and 94.2%, respectively. The Tiwi Sexual Health Program was accompanied by a significant reduction in STI rates between 2002 and 2005. This model of a comprehensive sexual health program with a dedicated co-ordinator located within a Primary Health Care service can be recommended as an effective approach to address high rates of STIs in remote Indigenous community settings

    Why are men less tested for sexually transmitted infections in remote Australian Indigenous communities? A mixed-methods study.

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    Gender disparities in testing rates for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been identified as one potential factor sustaining high rates of STIs and repeat infections in the Northern Territory of Australia, especially in remote Indigenous communities. The study aimed to investigate the reasons for these disparities utilising a mixed-method study design. We conducted an audit on client information at a remote community health clinic, focus-group discussions with young men in the same community and interviews with experienced remote area clinicians. The clinic audit found a significantly higher proportion of female residents of the community than males visited the clinic (72.8 versus 55.3%, p < 0.005). Women were also more likely to be tested for STIs than men when visiting the clinic (49.7 versus 40.3%, p = 0.015). Major barriers to men's seeking STI testing included a sense of shame from being seen visiting the clinic by women, men's lack of understanding of STIs and the need for testing, and inadequate access to male clinicians. Increasing men's access to healthcare and STI testing requires offering testing at a gender-sensitive and separate locations, and community-based sexual health promotion to increase knowledge of STIs

    Risk factors and associations for the diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections in Aboriginal women presenting to the Alice Springs Hospital emergency department.

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    To identify risk factors and associations for sexually transmitted infections (STI) in young Aboriginal women presenting to an ED for non-genitourinary reasons, in order to better target opportunistic screening in this group. To determine the prevalence of chlamydia and gonorrhoea in women presenting to the Alice Springs Hospital ED. A cross-sectional study involving STI screening and participant interview between January 2007 and September 2007 was used. The participants were a convenience sample of Aboriginal women aged 16-35 years presenting to the Alice Springs Hospital ED for non-genitourinary reasons. The main outcome measures were the prevalence of gonorrhoea and chlamydia and significant associations for STI. A total of 213 women were included in the study. The prevalence rates of women screened were 8.9% for chlamydia, 9.4% for gonorrhoea and 16.0% for gonorrhoea or chlamydia. Identified objective associations for positive STI diagnosis included presenting with an injury due to an assault (odds ratio [OR], 3.56), self-reported past history of an STI (OR, 2.53) and leucocytes on urinalysis (OR, 2.19). The prevalence of STI is high in young Aboriginal women presenting to Alice Springs Hospital ED. Screening is acceptable to these patients using low vaginal swabs, and may be targeted at those women with the identified associations. The results of the present study may have relevance to other hospital ED in areas with a high prevalence of STI. A prospective study is needed to confirm these findings

    Primary health clinic toilet/bathroom surface swab sampling can indicate community profile of sexually transmitted infections.

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    The microbiome of built environment surfaces is impacted by the presence of humans. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that analysis of surface swabs from clinic toilet/bathroom yields results correlated with sexually transmitted infection (STI) notifications from corresponding human populations. We extended a previously reported study in which surfaces in toilet/bathroom facilities in primary health clinics in the Australian Northern Territory (NT) were swabbed then tested for nucleic acid from the STI agents Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis. This was in the context of assessing the potential for such nucleic acid to contaminate specimens collected in such facilities. STIs are notifiable in the NT, thus allowing comparison of swab and notification data. An assumption in the design was that while absolute built environment loads of STI nucleic acids will be a function of patient traffic density and facility cleaning protocols, the relative loads of STI nucleic acids from different species will be largely unaffected by these processes. Another assumption was that the proportion of swabs testing positive for STIs provides a measure of surface contamination. Accordingly, "STI profiles" were calculated. These were the proportions that each of the three STIs of interest contributed to the summed STI positive swabs or notifications. Three comparisons were performed, using swab data from clinics in remote Indigenous communities, clinics in small-medium towns, and a single urban sexual health clinic. These data were compared with time and place-matched STI notifications. There were significant correlations between swab and notifications data for the both the remote Indigenous and regional data. For the remote Indigenous clinics the p values ranged from 0.041 to 0.0089, depending on data transformation and p value inference method. Further, the swab data appeared to strongly indicate known higher relative prevalence of gonorrhoeae in central Australia than in northern Australia. Similarly, the regional clinics yielded p values from 0.0088-0.0022. In contrast, swab and notifications data from the sexual health clinic were not correlated. Strong correlations between swab and notifications were observed. However, there was evidence for limitations of this approach. Despite the correlation observed with the regional clinics data, one clinic yielded zero positive swabs for C.?trachomatis, although this STI constituted 25.1% of the corresponding notifications. This could be ascribed to stochastic effects. The lack of correlation observed for sexual health clinic data was also likely due to stochastic effects. It was concluded that toilet/bathroom surface swab sampling has considerable potential for public health surveillance. The approach may be applicable in situations other than primary health clinics, and for targets other than STIs
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