56 research outputs found

    Detection of a fluorescent-labeled avidin-nucleic acid nanoassembly by confocal laser endomicroscopy in the microvasculature of chronically inflamed intestinal mucosa

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    Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic gastrointestinal pathologies causing great discomfort in both children and adults. The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases is not yet fully understood and their diagnosis and treatment are often challenging. Nanoparticle-based strategies have been tested in local drug delivery to the inflamed colon. Here, we have investigated the use of the novel avidin-nucleic acid nanoassembly (ANANAS) platform as a potential diagnostic carrier in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel diseases. Fluorescent- labeled ANANAS nanoparticles were administered to mice with chemically induced chronic inflammation of the large intestine. Localization of mucosal nanoparticles was assessed in vivo by dual-band confocal laser endomicroscopy. This technique enables characterization of the mucosal microvasculature and crypt architecture at subcellular resolution. Intravascular nanoparticle distribution was observed in the inflamed mucosa but not in healthy controls, demonstrating the utility of the combination of ANANAS and confocal laser endomicroscopy for highlighting intestinal inflammatory conditions. The specific localization of ANANAS in inflamed tissues supports the potential of this platform as a targeted carrier for bioactive moieties in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

    Prevalence of Different Subtypes of Serrated Polyps and Risk of Synchronous Advanced Colorectal Neoplasia in Average-Risk Population Undergoing First-Time Colonoscopy

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    OBJECTIVES: A growing body of evidence indicates that patients with sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) and traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) are at risk for subsequent malignancy. Despite increasing knowledge on histological categorization of serrated polyps (SPs) data are lacking on the actual prevalence and the association of each SP subtype with advanced colorectal neoplasia. METHODS: We prospectively determined the prevalence of different SP subtypes and evaluate the association with synchronous advanced neoplasia in asymptomatic average-risk subjects undergoing first-time colonoscopy. All retrieved polyps were examined by two independent pathologists. Serrated lesions were classified into hyperplastic polyps (HP), SSA/P (without and with cytological dysplasia, SSA/P/DIS), and TSA, and were screened for BRAF and K-ras mutations. RESULTS: Among 258 polyps detected in 985 subjects, the proportion of SSA/P and TSA was 8.9% and 1.9% with an overall prevalence of 2.3% and 0.6%, respectively. SSA/Ps were small without significant difference in their location between proximal and distal colon; TSA were predominantly left-sided. BRAF mutation was common in SSA/Ps and K-ras mutation was present in all TSA. Independent predictors of advanced neoplasia were male sex (odds ratio (OR)=2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-4.0), increasing age (OR=4.5, 95% CI 1.5-13.4 for 50-69 years and OR=9.9, 95% CI 3.1-31.5 for >70 years), current smoking (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.3-6.8), >3 tubular adenoma (OR=3.6, 95% CI 1.9-6.4), and SSA/P (OR=6.0, 95% CI 1.9-19.5). CONCLUSIONS: The substantial prevalence of BRAF-mutated SSA/P and the independent association with synchronous advanced colorectal neoplasia in asymptomatic average-risk subjects support the overall impact of the serrated pathway on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in general population. The endoscopic characteristics of SSA/P emphasize the need of high-quality colonoscopy as a key factor for an effective CRC screening progra

    Personalize, participate, predict, and prevent: 4Ps in inflammatory bowel disease

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    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is a complex, immune-mediated, disorder which leads to several gastrointestinal and systemic manifestations determining a poor quality of life, disability, and other negative health outcomes. Our knowledge of this condition has greatly improved over the last few decades, and a comprehensive management should take into account both biological (i.e., disease-related, patient-related) and non-biological (i.e., socioeconomic, cultural, environmental, behavioral) factors which contribute to the disease phenotype. From this point of view, the so called 4P medicine framework, including personalization, prediction, prevention, and participation could be useful for tailoring ad hoc interventions in IBD patients. In this review, we discuss the cutting-edge issues regarding personalization in special settings (i.e., pregnancy, oncology, infectious diseases), patient participation (i.e., how to communicate, disability, tackling stigma and resilience, quality of care), disease prediction (i.e., faecal markers, response to treatments), and prevention (i.e., dysplasia through endoscopy, infections through vaccinations, and post-surgical recurrence). Finally, we provide an outlook discussing the unmet needs for implementing this conceptual framework in clinical practice

    Exercise and inflammatory bowel disease : immunological aspects

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    Effet de l'activité physique d'intensité modérée chez des sujets atteints d'affections intestinales inflammatoires : rectocolite hémorragique et maladie de Crohn. Effets sur les symptômes, sur le temps de transit intestinal, sur la perméabilité des parois intestinales. Effets immunitaires de l'exercice, effets sur l'activation de la fonction neutrophile, rôle dans la prévention des maladies de l'intestin d'après l'étude des données épidémiologiques, incidences sur l'état de santé et la qualité de vie des malades entre les crises inflammatoires ou après des interventions chirurgicales de résection d'une partie de l'intestin

    Reduced Endothelial Progenitor Cell Number and Function in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Possible Link to the Pathogenesis

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    OBJECTIVES: Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are essential for endothelial repair and vascular healing. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may suffer from endothelial dysfunction. Reduced EPC number, impaired mobilization, or increased EPC apoptosis may be crucial in this phenomenon. The aim of our study was to investigate the number and function of EPCs in patients with IBD and to assess their endothelial function. METHODS: In 100 IBD patients (47 ulcerative colitis (UC) and 53 Crohn's disease (CD)) and 50 healthy controls, EPC number, CXC motif receptor 4 (CXCR4) expression, the percentage of apoptotic circulating EPCs, and the number of colony-forming units were evaluated. Endothelial dysfunction was assessed by luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone levels, and in a subgroup of patients, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA (analysis of variance), Mann-Whitney U two-tailed, and Spearman's rank correlation tests were used to assess differences. RESULTS: EPC number was significantly lower in UC patients (39.6 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 30.7-48.6)) and in CD patients (43.1 (95% CI: 35.9-50.4)) than in healthy controls (97.1 (95% CI: 88.3-105.9)), (P<0.001). LH and FSH levels and CXCR4 expression on EPCs did not significantly differ from controls. Testosterone concentrations and FMD were lower in UC patients. Number of apoptotic EPCs was higher in both UC and CD patients with an impaired ability to generate colony in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize that in IBD patients, apoptosis contributes to the reduction of circulating EPC number and to their ability to proliferate in vitro. As this condition represents a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, endothelial function should be evaluated in these patients

    Operative link for gastritis assessment vs operative link on intestinal metaplasia assessment

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    AIM: To compare the reliability of gastritis staging systems in ranking gastritis-associated cancer risk in a large series of consecutive patients

    A Phase 2a, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled Trial of IBD98-M Delayed-Release Capsules to Induce Remission in Patients with Active and Mild to Moderate Ulcerative Colitis

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    IBD98-M is a delayed-release formulation of mesalamine (mesalazine) and SH with a potential therapeutic role in ulcerative colitis (UC). A total of 51 patients with a modified Ulcerative Colitis Disease Activity Index (UCDAI) score of &#8805;4 and &#8804;10, and a modified UCDAI endoscopy subscore &#8805;1 were randomized for 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with IBD98 0.8 g/day or IBD 1.2 g/day or placebo. The efficacy and safety of IBD98-M in mild to moderate active UC were primarily evaluated. At week 6, 1 (5.9%), 2 (12.5%), and 2 (11.1%) patients receiving IBD98-M 0.8 g, IBD98-M 1.2 g, and placebo, respectively, (p &gt; 0.999) achieved clinical remission. Higher clinical response was seen in IBD98-M 1.2 g (31.3%) versus placebo (16.7%) and endoscopic improvement in IBD98-M 0.8 g (29.4%) versus placebo (22.2%) was seen. Fecal calprotectin levels were reduced in IBD98-M groups versus placebo (p &gt; 0.05). IBD98-M patients achieved significant improvement in physical health summary score component of the SF-36 (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03 respectively) compared to placebo. IBD98-M did not meet the primary end point but had higher clinical response (1.2 g/day) and endoscopic improvement (0.8 g/day) compared to placebo. The safety result shown that IBD98-M treatment was safe and well tolerated in this patient population. No new safety signals or unexpected safety findings were observed during the study. Further trials with different stratification and longer follow-up may be needed to evaluate the efficacy

    Wilson disease: Histopathological correlations with treatment on follow-up liver biopsies

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    AIM: To investigate the progression of hepatic histopathology in serial liver biopsies from Wilson disease (WD) patients

    Deletion of PTEN and BMPR1A on Chromosome 10q23 Is Not Always Associated with Juvenile Polyposis of Infancy

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    We report a patient who had a similar interstitial deletion of chromosome 10 that was, however, associated with a significantly milder phenotype. The patient, an 8-year-old girl, was born in the 36th gestational week to nonconsanguineous parents with a family history negative for JPI. Birth weight was 2,850 g (75th percentile), length was 50 cm (75th\u201390th percentile), and head circumference was 34 cm (50th\u201375th percentile). Perinatality and early development were normal. Mild developmental delay was noticed during the 2nd year of life
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