423 research outputs found

    Geometry of Higher-Order Markov Chains

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    We determine an explicit Gr\"obner basis, consisting of linear forms and determinantal quadrics, for the prime ideal of Raftery's mixture transition distribution model for Markov chains. When the states are binary, the corresponding projective variety is a linear space, the model itself consists of two simplices in a cross-polytope, and the likelihood function typically has two local maxima. In the general non-binary case, the model corresponds to a cone over a Segre variety.Comment: 9 page

    A sagbi basis for the quantum Grassmannian

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    The maximal minors of a p by (m + p) matrix of univariate polynomials of degree n with indeterminate coefficients are themselves polynomials of degree np. The subalgebra generated by their coefficients is the coordinate ring of the quantum Grassmannian, a singular compactification of the space of rational curves of degree np in the Grassmannian of p-planes in (m + p)-space. These subalgebra generators are shown to form a sagbi basis. The resulting flat deformation from the quantum Grassmannian to a toric variety gives a new `Gr\"obner basis style' proof of the Ravi-Rosenthal-Wang formulas in quantum Schubert calculus. The coordinate ring of the quantum Grassmannian is an algebra with straightening law, which is normal, Cohen-Macaulay, Gorenstein and Koszul, and the ideal of quantum Pl\"ucker relations has a quadratic Gr\"obner basis. This holds more generally for skew quantum Schubert varieties. These results are well-known for the classical Schubert varieties (n=0). We also show that the row-consecutive p by p-minors of a generic matrix form a sagbi basis and we give a quadratic Gr\"obner basis for their algebraic relations.Comment: 18 pages, 3 eps figure, uses epsf.sty. Dedicated to the memory of Gian-Carlo Rot