10,302 research outputs found

    Arc pressure and weld metal fluid flow whilst using alternating shielding gases Part 2 : arc force determination

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    The transient variation of the shielding gas present in the alternating shielding gas process produces a dynamic action within the liquid weld metal. Flow vectors opposite in direction have been reported due to the various forces acting on the weld metal when argon and helium are present, however no data has been provided to substantiate this claim. This part of the study evaluates the various forces acting on the liquid weld metal when using argon and helium and their effects discussed. It was determined that argon produces a greater vertically downward force in the central region than helium for both the arc force and Lorentz force. While helium produces a greater radially outwards force at the pool surface than argon due to plasma shear stress and Marangoni convection. In addition, the buoyancy force, i.e. the vertically upward force in the central portion of the weld metal, was greater for helium

    Arc pressure and weld metal fluid flow whilst using alternating shielding gases Part 1 : arc pressure measurement

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    As part of an ongoing process to fully evaluate the effects of an alternating shielding gas supply on gas shielded welding processes, a comparison between the arc pressures generated using argon, helium, alternating shielding gases and pulsed GTAW has been conducted. Arc pressure variation and peaking are two of the fundamental phenomena produced during the alternating shielding gas process and are said to help create a stirring action within the liquid weld metal. However, there is no published data on arc pressure measurements during an alternating shielding gas supply and, consequently, these phenomena are based solely on theoretical assumptions. The experimental measurements made have shown that alternating shielding gases produces considerably higher arc pressures than argon, helium and pulsed GTAW due to a surge at weld initiation. The transient arc pressure measurements made when using alternating shielding gases are also considerably different from the theoretical assumptions previously reported

    Moduli stabilization and SUSY breaking in heterotic orbifold string models

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    In this paper we discuss the issues of supersymmetry breaking and moduli stabilization within the context of E_8 x E_8 heterotic orbifold constructions and, in particular, we focus on the class of "mini-landscape" models. In the supersymmetric limit, these models admit an effective low energy field theory with a spectrum of states and dimensionless gauge and Yukawa couplings very much like that of the MSSM. These theories contain a non-Abelian hidden gauge sector which generates a non-perturbative superpotential leading to supersymmetry breaking and moduli stabilization. We demonstrate this effect in a simple model which contains many of the features of the more general construction. In addition, we argue that once supersymmetry is broken in a restricted sector of the theory, then all moduli are stabilized by supergravity effects. Finally, we obtain the low energy superparticle spectrum resulting from this simple model.Comment: LaTeX, v2: 57+1 pages, 4 figures, 8 Tables, added references; this version i) discusses volume moduli stabilization with exponentials of both sign (as sometimes mandated by modular invariance); ii) includes the anomalous U(1)_A D-term & the leading Coleman-Weinberg 1-loop correction into the MSSM soft masses to prevent tachyonic results

    Derivation of forces acting on the liquid weld metal based on arc pressure measurements produced using alternating shielding gases in the GTAW process

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    As part of an ongoing process to fully evaluate the effects of an alternating shielding gas supply on the gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc welding processes, a comparison between arc pressures produced using argon, helium, alternating gases and GTAW-P has been conducted. The alternating shielding gas process is reported to create a dynamic stirring action within the liquid weld metal as a result of three independent phenomena: a) variation in weld pool fluidity, b) arc pressure variation, and c) arc pressure peaking. These effects have been the basis of previous advantages associated with the process, however these phenomena have not previously been verified and are based solely on theoretical assumptions. Arc pressure measurements are presented which allowed for the numerical derivation of various forces acting on the liquid weld metal in order to estimate the flow vectors present when each shielding gas is present

    Evaluation of gas metal arc welding with alterating shielding gases for use on AA6082T6

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    Studies have been carried out to determine the effects of implementing alternating shielding gases for 6082T6 aluminium alloy welding. Alternating shielding gases is a newly developed method of supplying shielding gases to the weld area to enhance the efficiency of the standard Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process. This method involves discretely supplying two different shielding gases to the weld zone at a pre-determined frequency which creates a dynamic action in the weld pool. Several benefits have been identified in relation to supplying shielding gases in this manner including increased travel speed, reduced distortion, reduced porosity and, in the case of specific alternating frequencies, marginal improvements in mechanical properties. All in all, this method of shielding gas delivery presents attractive benefits to the manufacturing community, namely the increased productivity and quality in addition to a reduction in the amount of post-weld straightening required. However, the literature available on this advanced joining process is very scant, especially so for aluminium alloys. For this reason, an evaluation has been carried out on the application of alternating shielding gases for the GMAW process on 6082T6 aluminium alloys

    A potential solution to GMAW gas flow optimisation

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    A number of self-regulating shielding gas valves have been developed to synchronise the shielding gas flow rate to the welding current being used in the gas metal arc welding process (GMAW). These valves make claims to reduce the shielding gas consumption by up to 60%. One such system, the RegulaÂź EWR Pro, has undergone detailed evaluation in an effort to fully understand the benefits that could be obtained. This electromagnetically controlled system necessitates around an extremely fast response valve, which opens and closes continually throughout the welding process. This creates a pulsing of the shielding gas, further reducing consumption whilst maintaining optimal shielding gas flow. The unit has been identified to reduce the initial gas surge at weld initiation and results in a virtually instant decay of gas flow at weld termination. These particular characteristics have been found to be ideally suited to saving shielding gas when carrying out intermittent or stitch welding. It was established that the use of this valve generated deeper penetration in fillet welds, which in turn has highlighted the potential to increase the welding speed, therefore further reducing gas consumption. In addition, a computational model has been developed to simulate the effects of cross drafts. The combination of reducing the gas surge and slow decay with faster welding has been shown to meet the drive for cost savings and improving the carbon footprint