12,614 research outputs found

    GALPROP WebRun: an internet-based service for calculating galactic cosmic ray propagation and associated photon emissions

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    GALPROP is a numerical code for calculating the galactic propagation of relativistic charged particles and the diffuse emissions produced during their propagation. The code incorporates as much realistic astrophysical input as possible together with latest theoretical developments and has become a de facto standard in astrophysics of cosmic rays. We present GALPROP WebRun, a service to the scientific community enabling easy use of the freely available GALPROP code via web browsers. In addition, we introduce the latest GALPROP version 54, available through this service.Comment: Accepted for publication in Computer Physics Communications. Version 2 includes improvements suggested by the referee. Metadata completed in version 3 (no changes to the manuscript

    Surface circulation in the Great Lakes as observed by LANDSAT-1 August 1972 - December 1973: Southern Lake Michigan

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    The surface current circulation patterns of southern Lake Michigan were charted for all cardinal and subcardinal wind directions, employing LANDSAT-1 observations of the distribution of natural tracing material borne in the surface waters. These colorants consist chiefly of river discharges composed of suspended sediments, pollutants, and algae; extensive chemical precipitations proved valuable for areas farther from shore. Comparison of the satellite-derived surface current charts with previous theoretical and empirical studies shows good agreement

    Propagation of cosmic rays: nuclear physics in cosmic-ray studies

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    The nuclei fraction in cosmic rays (CR) far exceeds the fraction of other CR species, such as antiprotons, electrons, and positrons. Thus the majority of information obtained from CR studies is based on interpretation of isotopic abundances using CR propagation models where the nuclear data and isotopic production cross sections in p- and alpha-induced reactions are the key elements. This paper presents an introduction to the astrophysics of CR and diffuse gamma rays and discusses some of the puzzles that have emerged recently due to more precise data and improved propagation models. Merging with cosmology and particle physics, astrophysics of CR has become a very dynamic field with a large potential of breakthrough and discoveries in the near future. Exploiting the data collected by the CR experiments to the fullest requires accurate nuclear cross sections.Comment: 6 pages, 13 figures, aip style files. Invited review talk at the Int. Conf. on Nuclear Data-2004 (Santa Fe, Sep. 26 - Oct. 1, 2004). To appear in AIP Conf. Pro

    Challenging cosmic ray propagation with antiprotons. Evidence for a "fresh" nuclei component?

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    Recent measurements of the cosmic ray (CR) antiproton flux have been shown to challenge existing CR propagation models. It was shown that the reacceleration models designed to match secondary to primary nuclei ratios (e.g., boron/carbon) produce too few antiprotons. Matching both the secondary to primary nuclei ratio and the antiproton flux requires artificial breaks in the diffusion coefficient and the primary injection spectrum suggesting the need for other approaches. In the present paper we discuss one possibility to overcome these difficulties. Using the measured antiproton flux AND B/C ratio to fix the diffusion coefficient, we show that the spectra of primary nuclei as measured in the heliosphere may contain a fresh local "unprocessed" component at low energies perhaps associated with the Local Bubble, thus decreasing the measured secondary to primary nuclei ratio. The independent evidence for SN activity in the solar vicinity in the last few Myr supports this idea. The model reproduces antiprotons, B/C ratio, and elemental abundances up to Ni (Z<=28). Calculated isotopic distributions of Be and B are in perfect agreement with CR data. The abundances of three "radioactive clock" isotopes in CR, 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, are all consistent and indicate a halo size z_h~4 kpc based on the most accurate data taken by the ACE spacecraft.Comment: To be published in The Astrophysical Journal, v.586, 2003 April 1; final version: 19 pages, 24 ps-figures, emulateapj5.sty (modified), natbib.sty, aastex.cls. More details can be found at http://www.gamma.mpe-garching.mpg.de/~aws/aws.htm

    Techniques for carrying out radiative transfer calculations for the Martian atmospheric dust

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    A description is given of the modification of a theory on the reflectance of particulate media so as to apply it to analysis of the infrared spectra obtained by the IRIS instrument on Mariner 9. With the aid of this theory and the optical constants of muscovite mica, quartz, andesite, anorthosite, diopside pyroxenite, and dunite, modeling calculations were made to refine previous estimates of the mineralogical composition of the Martian dust particles. These calculations suggest that a feldspar rich mixture is a very likely composition for the dust particles. The optical constants used for anorthosite and diopside pyroxenite were derived during this program from reflectance measurements. Those for the mica were derived from literature reflectance data. Finally, a computer program was written to invert the measured radiance data so as to obtain the absorption coefficient spectrum which should then be independent of the temperature profile and gaseous component effects

    Gamma-Ray Burst Detection with INTEGRAL/SPI

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    The spectrometer SPI, one of the two main instruments of the INTEGRAL spacecraft, has strong capabilities in the Field of Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) detections. In its 16 degree Field of view (FoV) SPI is able to trigger and to localize GRBs. With its large anticoincidence shield (ACS) of 512 kg of BGO crystals SPI is able to detect GRBs quasi omnidirectionally with a very high sensitivity. The ACS GRB alerts will provide GRB arrival times with high accuracy but with no or very rough positional information. The expected GRB detection rate in SPI's FoV will be one per month and for the ACS around 300 per year. At MPE two SPI software contributions to the real-time INTEGRAL burst-alert system (IBAS) at the INTEGRAL science data centre ISDC have been developed. The SPI-ACS branch of IBAS will produce burst alerts and light-curves with 50 ms resolution. It is planned to use ACS burst alerts in the 3rd interplanetary network. The SPI-FoV branch of IBAS is currently under development at MPE. The system is using the energy and timing information of single and multiple events detected by the Germanium-camera of SPI. Using the imaging algorithm developed at the University of Birmingham the system is expected to locate strong bursts with an accuracy of better than 1 degree.Comment: 11 pages, 5 figure

    Propagation of Light Elements in the Galaxy

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    The origin and evolution of isotopes of the lightest elements H2, He3, Li, Be, B in the universe is a key problem in such fields as astrophysics of CR, Galactic evolution, non-thermal nucleosynthesis, and cosmological studies. One of the major sources of these species is spallation by CR nuclei in the interstellar medium. On the other hand, it is the B/C ratio in CR and Be10 abundance which are used to fix the propagation parameters and thus the spallation rate. We study the production and Galactic propagation of isotopes of elements Z<6 using the numerical propagation code GALPROP and updated production cross sections.Comment: 4 pages, 6 ps-figures, tsukuba.sty, to appear in the Proc. 28th International Cosmic Ray Conference (Tsukuba, Japan 2003). More details can be found at http://www.gamma.mpe-garching.mpg.de/~aws/aws.htm
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