25,838 research outputs found

    Weak Lensing Determination of the Mass in Galaxy Halos

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    We detect the weak gravitational lensing distortion of 450,000 background galaxies (20<R<23) by 790 foreground galaxies (R<18) selected from the Las Campanas Redshift Survey (LCRS). This is the first detection of weak lensing by field galaxies of known redshift, and as such permits us to reconstruct the shear profile of the typical field galaxy halo in absolute physical units (modulo H_0), and to investigate the dependence of halo mass upon galaxy luminosity. This is also the first galaxy-galaxy lensing study for which the calibration errors are negligible. Within a projected radius of 200 \hkpc, the shear profile is consistent with an isothermal profile with circular velocity 164+-20 km/s for an L* galaxy, consistent with typical disk rotation at this luminosity. This halo mass normalization, combined with the halo profile derived by Fischer et al (2000) from lensing analysis SDSS data, places a lower limit of (2.7+-0.6) x 10^{12}h^{-1} solar masses on the mass of an L* galaxy halo, in good agreement with satellite galaxy studies. Given the known luminosity function of LCRS galaxies, and the assumption that MLβM\propto L^\beta for galaxies, we determine that the mass within 260\hkpc of normal galaxies contributes Ω=0.16±0.03\Omega=0.16\pm0.03 to the density of the Universe (for β=1\beta=1) or Ω=0.24±0.06\Omega=0.24\pm0.06 for β=0.5\beta=0.5. These lensing data suggest that 0.6<β<2.40.6<\beta<2.4 (95% CL), only marginally in agreement with the usual β0.5\beta\approx0.5 Faber-Jackson or Tully-Fisher scaling. This is the most complete direct inventory of the matter content of the Universe to date.Comment: 18 pages, incl. 3 figures. Submitted to ApJ 6/7/00, still no response from the referee after four months

    Factors shaping attitudes towards UK bank brands: An exploratory analysis of social media data

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    Social media provides a huge amount of data and rich market insight, and has changed the way customers interact with brands. This interaction is of great concern for any organisation as it transfers the power to shape brand image from advertisers to consumers. In light of the global financial crisis and the ensuing negative attitudes towards bank brands, this study has extracted 1176 comments on bank advertisements from the verified Facebook pages of 10 UK banks. These comments have been thematically analysed to identify seven key factors that shape customer attitudes to bank brands. The study presents the power of social media as a platform for brands and customers to engage and build relationships, especially bank–customer relationships in the UK, providing managers with important insights that can guide the development and execution of their brand-relationship campaigns. The fact that this study is based on real-life advertisements and real-life responses from social media network users can be considered as one of its strengths, as it does not suffer from various issues relating to experimental studies. Nonetheless, the study’s limitations and suggestions for future research directions are provided

    A Generalized Diffusion Tensor for Fully Anisotropic Diffusion of Energetic Particles in the Heliospheric Magnetic Field

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    The spatial diffusion of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields can, in the most general case, be fully anisotropic, i.e. one has to distinguish three diffusion axes in a local, field-aligned frame. We reexamine the transformation for the diffusion tensor from this local to a global frame, in which the Parker transport equation for energetic particles is usually formulated and solved. Particularly, we generalize the transformation formulas to allow for an explicit choice of two principal local perpendicular diffusion axes. This generalization includes the 'traditional' diffusion tensor in the special case of isotropic perpendicular diffusion. For the local frame, we motivate the choice of the Frenet-Serret trihedron which is related to the intrinsic magnetic field geometry. We directly compare the old and the new tensor elements for two heliospheric magnetic field configurations, namely the hybrid Fisk and the Parker field. Subsequently, we examine the significance of the different formulations for the diffusion tensor in a standard 3D model for the modulation of galactic protons. For this we utilize a numerical code to evaluate a system of stochastic differential equations equivalent to the Parker transport equation and present the resulting modulated spectra. The computed differential fluxes based on the new tensor formulation deviate from those obtained with the 'traditional' one (only valid for isotropic perpendicular diffusion) by up to 60% for energies below a few hundred MeV depending on heliocentric distance.Comment: 8 pages, 6 figures, accepted in Ap