39,897 research outputs found

### Simultaneous sparse approximation via greedy pursuit

A simple sparse approximation problem requests an approximation of a given input signal as a linear combination of T elementary signals drawn from a large, linearly dependent collection. An important generalization is simultaneous sparse approximation. Now one must approximate several input signals at once using different linear combinations of the same T elementary signals. This formulation appears, for example, when analyzing multiple observations of a sparse signal that have been contaminated with noise. A new approach to this problem is presented here: a greedy pursuit algorithm called simultaneous orthogonal matching pursuit. The paper proves that the algorithm calculates simultaneous approximations whose error is within a constant factor of the optimal simultaneous approximation error. This result requires that the collection of elementary signals be weakly correlated, a property that is also known as incoherence. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the algorithm often succeeds, even when the inputs do not meet the hypotheses of the proof

### Improved sparse approximation over quasi-incoherent dictionaries

This paper discusses a new greedy algorithm for solving the sparse approximation problem over quasi-incoherent dictionaries. These dictionaries consist of waveforms that are uncorrelated "on average," and they provide a natural generalization of incoherent dictionaries. The algorithm provides strong guarantees on the quality of the approximations it produces, unlike most other methods for sparse approximation. Moreover, very efficient implementations are possible via approximate nearest-neighbor data structure

### Algorithmic linear dimension reduction in the l_1 norm for sparse vectors

This paper develops a new method for recovering m-sparse signals that is
simultaneously uniform and quick. We present a reconstruction algorithm whose
run time, O(m log^2(m) log^2(d)), is sublinear in the length d of the signal.
The reconstruction error is within a logarithmic factor (in m) of the optimal
m-term approximation error in l_1. In particular, the algorithm recovers
m-sparse signals perfectly and noisy signals are recovered with polylogarithmic
distortion. Our algorithm makes O(m log^2 (d)) measurements, which is within a
logarithmic factor of optimal. We also present a small-space implementation of
the algorithm. These sketching techniques and the corresponding reconstruction
algorithms provide an algorithmic dimension reduction in the l_1 norm. In
particular, vectors of support m in dimension d can be linearly embedded into
O(m log^2 d) dimensions with polylogarithmic distortion. We can reconstruct a
vector from its low-dimensional sketch in time O(m log^2(m) log^2(d)).
Furthermore, this reconstruction is stable and robust under small
perturbations

### List decoding of noisy Reed-Muller-like codes

First- and second-order Reed-Muller (RM(1) and RM(2), respectively) codes are
two fundamental error-correcting codes which arise in communication as well as
in probabilistically-checkable proofs and learning. In this paper, we take the
first steps toward extending the quick randomized decoding tools of RM(1) into
the realm of quadratic binary and, equivalently, Z_4 codes. Our main
algorithmic result is an extension of the RM(1) techniques from Goldreich-Levin
and Kushilevitz-Mansour algorithms to the Hankel code, a code between RM(1) and
RM(2). That is, given signal s of length N, we find a list that is a superset
of all Hankel codewords phi with dot product to s at least (1/sqrt(k)) times
the norm of s, in time polynomial in k and log(N). We also give a new and
simple formulation of a known Kerdock code as a subcode of the Hankel code. As
a corollary, we can list-decode Kerdock, too. Also, we get a quick algorithm
for finding a sparse Kerdock approximation. That is, for k small compared with
1/sqrt{N} and for epsilon > 0, we find, in time polynomial in (k
log(N)/epsilon), a k-Kerdock-term approximation s~ to s with Euclidean error at
most the factor (1+epsilon+O(k^2/sqrt{N})) times that of the best such
approximation

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