39,897 research outputs found

    Simultaneous sparse approximation via greedy pursuit

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    A simple sparse approximation problem requests an approximation of a given input signal as a linear combination of T elementary signals drawn from a large, linearly dependent collection. An important generalization is simultaneous sparse approximation. Now one must approximate several input signals at once using different linear combinations of the same T elementary signals. This formulation appears, for example, when analyzing multiple observations of a sparse signal that have been contaminated with noise. A new approach to this problem is presented here: a greedy pursuit algorithm called simultaneous orthogonal matching pursuit. The paper proves that the algorithm calculates simultaneous approximations whose error is within a constant factor of the optimal simultaneous approximation error. This result requires that the collection of elementary signals be weakly correlated, a property that is also known as incoherence. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the algorithm often succeeds, even when the inputs do not meet the hypotheses of the proof

    Improved sparse approximation over quasi-incoherent dictionaries

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    This paper discusses a new greedy algorithm for solving the sparse approximation problem over quasi-incoherent dictionaries. These dictionaries consist of waveforms that are uncorrelated "on average," and they provide a natural generalization of incoherent dictionaries. The algorithm provides strong guarantees on the quality of the approximations it produces, unlike most other methods for sparse approximation. Moreover, very efficient implementations are possible via approximate nearest-neighbor data structure

    Algorithmic linear dimension reduction in the l_1 norm for sparse vectors

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    This paper develops a new method for recovering m-sparse signals that is simultaneously uniform and quick. We present a reconstruction algorithm whose run time, O(m log^2(m) log^2(d)), is sublinear in the length d of the signal. The reconstruction error is within a logarithmic factor (in m) of the optimal m-term approximation error in l_1. In particular, the algorithm recovers m-sparse signals perfectly and noisy signals are recovered with polylogarithmic distortion. Our algorithm makes O(m log^2 (d)) measurements, which is within a logarithmic factor of optimal. We also present a small-space implementation of the algorithm. These sketching techniques and the corresponding reconstruction algorithms provide an algorithmic dimension reduction in the l_1 norm. In particular, vectors of support m in dimension d can be linearly embedded into O(m log^2 d) dimensions with polylogarithmic distortion. We can reconstruct a vector from its low-dimensional sketch in time O(m log^2(m) log^2(d)). Furthermore, this reconstruction is stable and robust under small perturbations

    List decoding of noisy Reed-Muller-like codes

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    First- and second-order Reed-Muller (RM(1) and RM(2), respectively) codes are two fundamental error-correcting codes which arise in communication as well as in probabilistically-checkable proofs and learning. In this paper, we take the first steps toward extending the quick randomized decoding tools of RM(1) into the realm of quadratic binary and, equivalently, Z_4 codes. Our main algorithmic result is an extension of the RM(1) techniques from Goldreich-Levin and Kushilevitz-Mansour algorithms to the Hankel code, a code between RM(1) and RM(2). That is, given signal s of length N, we find a list that is a superset of all Hankel codewords phi with dot product to s at least (1/sqrt(k)) times the norm of s, in time polynomial in k and log(N). We also give a new and simple formulation of a known Kerdock code as a subcode of the Hankel code. As a corollary, we can list-decode Kerdock, too. Also, we get a quick algorithm for finding a sparse Kerdock approximation. That is, for k small compared with 1/sqrt{N} and for epsilon > 0, we find, in time polynomial in (k log(N)/epsilon), a k-Kerdock-term approximation s~ to s with Euclidean error at most the factor (1+epsilon+O(k^2/sqrt{N})) times that of the best such approximation