4,394 research outputs found

    Calibration and Alignment of the CMS Silicon Tracking Detector

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    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will dominate the high energy physics program in the coming decade. The discovery of the standard model Higgs boson and the discovery of super-symmetric particles are within the reach at the energy scale explored by the LHC. However, the high luminosity and the high energy of the colliding protons lead to challenging demands on the detectors. The hostile radiation environment requires irradiation hard detectors, where the innermost subdetectors, consisting of silicon modules, are most affected. This thesis is devoted to the calibration and alignment of the silicon tracking detector. Electron test beam data, taken at DESY, have been used to investigate the performance of detector modules which previously were irradiated with protons up to a dose expected after 10 years of operation. The irradiated sensors turned out to be still better than required. The performance of the inner tracking systems will be dominated by the degree to which the positions of the sensors can be determined. Only a track based alignment procedure can reach the required precision. Such an alignment procedure is a major challenge given that about 50000 geometry constants need to be measured. Making use of the novel minimization program Millepede II an alignment strategy has been developed in which all detector components are aligned simultaneously, as many sources of information as possible are used, and all correlations between the position parameters of the detectors are taken into account. Utilizing simulated data, a proof of concept of the alignment strategy is shown

    SUSY searches at CMS

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    This article summarizes searches for supersymmetry at the CMS detector performed in 2011 at the LHC with pp collisions energies of 7TeV. For several leptonic and photonic supersymmetry searches results are presented with an integrated luminosity of approximately 5 fb−1 that are shown for the first time in public at this conference. In none of the searches a potential supersymmetry signal has been observed and within the CMSSM gluiono masses below ∼ 750 and first generation squarks masses below ∼ 1250 GeV have been excluded. Finally an outlook on the focus of supersymmetry related activities at the CMS detector in the near future is given

    Public Hospital Spending in England: Evidence from National Health Service Administrative Records

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    © 2016 The Authors. Fiscal Studies published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. on behalf of Institute for Fiscal StudiesHealth spending per capita in England has almost doubled since 1997, yet relatively little is known about how that spending is distributed across the population. This paper uses administrative National Health Service (NHS) hospital records to examine key features of public hospital spending in England. We describe how costs vary across the life cycle, and the concentration of spending among people and over time. We find that costs per person start to increase after age 50 and escalate after age 70. Spending is highly concentrated in a small section of the population, but the degree of concentration is lower for older age groups. For those aged 25 and under, a third of all hospital spending is accounted for by 1 per cent of the population under 25 and a fifth of spending is accounted for by 1 per cent of patients under 25. For those aged 65 and over, these figures fall to 22 and 13 per cent, respectively. There is persistence in spending over time, with patients with high spending more likely to have spending in subsequent years and those with zero expenditures more likely to remain out of hospital

    A Minimal Periods Algorithm with Applications

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    Kosaraju in ``Computation of squares in a string'' briefly described a linear-time algorithm for computing the minimal squares starting at each position in a word. Using the same construction of suffix trees, we generalize his result and describe in detail how to compute in O(k|w|)-time the minimal k-th power, with period of length larger than s, starting at each position in a word w for arbitrary exponent k2k\geq2 and integer s0s\geq0. We provide the complete proof of correctness of the algorithm, which is somehow not completely clear in Kosaraju's original paper. The algorithm can be used as a sub-routine to detect certain types of pseudo-patterns in words, which is our original intention to study the generalization.Comment: 14 page

    Binding of more than one Tva800 molecule is required for ASLV-A entry

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    BACKGROUND: Understanding the mechanism by which viruses enter their target cell is an essential part of understanding their infectious cycle. Previous studies have focussed on the multiplicity of viral envelope proteins that need to bind to their cognate receptor to initiate entry. Avian sarcoma and leukosis virus Envelope protein (ASLV Env) mediates entry via a receptor, Tva, which can be attached to the cell surface either by a phospholipid anchor (Tva800) or a transmembrane domain (Tva950). In these studies, we have now investigated the number of target receptors necessary for entry of ASLV Env-pseudotyped virions. RESULTS: Using titration and modelling experiments we provide evidence that binding of more than one receptor, probably two, is needed for entry of virions via Tva800. However, binding of just one Tva950 receptor is sufficient for successful entry. CONCLUSIONS: The different modes of attachment of Tva800 and Tva950 to the cell membrane have important implications for the utilisation of these proteins as receptors for viral binding and/or uptake

    Correction: Benchmarking tools for the alignment of functional noncoding DNA

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    RIGHTS : This article is licensed under the BioMed Central licence at http://www.biomedcentral.com/about/license which is similar to the 'Creative Commons Attribution Licence'. In brief you may : copy, distribute, and display the work; make derivative works; or make commercial use of the work - under the following conditions: the original author must be given credit; for any reuse or distribution, it must be made clear to others what the license terms of this work are.AbstractIn follow-up studies to this work [1], we have identified an error in a single line of code responsible for parsing BLASTZ [2] alignments that affects our previously published results for this alignment tool. This error resulted in a reduction in overall alignment coverage, with a concomitant underestimation of alignment sensitivity and overestimation of alignment specificity. As BLASTZ is an important and widely used alignment tool, we present here the revised results of our performance evaluations for BLASTZ together with previously reported results for the other alignment tools studied, which have been subsequently verified (Figures 1-4). The general conclusions presented in [1] remain unchanged, although the following sections concerning BLASTZ performance must be modified in light of our recent findings. The true overall alignment coverage for BLASTZ with and without insertion/deletion evolution and with and without blocks of constraint is shown in Figure 1, and reveals increased overall coverage in the presence of constrained blocks for intermediate to high divergence distances (Figures 1C & 1D) relative to previous results ([1] Figures 3C & 3D). As a consequence, the true overall sensitivity for BLASTZ is increased for intermediate to high divergence distances, especially in the presence of insertion/deletion evolution and constrained blocks (Figure 2D) relative to previous results ([1] Figure 4D). The most important revisions to [1] concern BLASTZ performance in interspersed blocks of constrained sequences (Figures 3, 4). Figure 3 shows that the true constraint coverage, and therefore constraint sensitivity, of BLASTZ is much improved relative to previous results for intermediate to high divergence distances ([1], Figure 5). Thus BLASTZ has increased constraint coverage relative to overall coverage (cp. Figures 1C & 1D with 3A & 3B), indicating that BLASTZ local alignments preferentially occur in constrained sequences for intermediate to high divergence distances, overturning claims on page 6 of [1] to the contrary. Likewise, the claim that BLASTZ has a "dramatic decrease in constraint sensitivity in the presence of indel evolution" on page 10 of [1] is incorrect. The increase in overall coverage, however, decreases the constraint specificity of BLASTZ for intermediate to high divergence distances (Figure 4A & 4B) relative to previous results ([1] Figure 6A & 6B). This decrease in constraint specificity requires reconsideration of the use of BLASTZ local alignments as specific detectors of constrained noncoding sequences discussed page 10 of [1]. Revised performance statistics for BLASTZ are posted along with previous results at [3]. We apologize for any misconception or inconvenience this error may have caused. References: 1. Pollard DA, Bergman CM, Stoye J, Celniker SE, Eisen MB: Benchmarking tools for the alignment of functional noncoding DNA. BMC Bioinformatics 2004, 5:6. 2. Schwartz S, Kent WJ, Smit A, Zhang Z, Baertsch R, Hardison RC, Haussler D, Miller W: Human-mouse alignments with BLASTZ. Genome Res 2003, 13:103-7. 3. AlignmentBenchmarking [http://rana.lbl.gov/AlignmentBenchmarking]Peer Reviewe

    Signal-to-Noise Measurements on Irradiated CMS Tracker Detector Modules in an Electron Testbeam

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    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is in the last phase of its construction. The harsh radiation environment at LHC will put strong demands in radiation hardness to the innermost parts of the detector. To assess the performance of irradiated microstrip detector modules, a testbeam was conducted at the Testbeam 22 facility of the DESY research center. The primary objective was the signal-to-noise measurement of irradiated CMS Tracker modules to ensure their functionality up to 10 years of LHC operation. The paper briefly summarises the basic setup at the facility and the hardware and software used to collect and analyse the data. Some interesting subsidiary results are shown, which confirm the expected behaviour of the detector with respect to the signal-to-noise performance over the active detector area and for different electron energies. The main focus of the paper are the results of the signal-to-noise measurements for CMS Tracker Modules which were exposed to different radiation doses

    Cleaning of soft-solid soil layers on vertical and horizontal surfaces by stationary coherent impinging liquid jets

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    The cleaning action of stationary coherent liquid jets impinging (a) vertically downwards on horizontal plates, and (b) horizontally on vertical plates, was investigated using three soft-solid model soil layers: (i) PVA glue on glass and polymethylmethacrylate (Perspex) substrates; (ii) Xanthan gum on stainless steel; and (iii) petroleum jelly on glass. The liquid stream nozzle sizes, mass and volumetric flow rates and mean jet velocities investigated were: PVA, 2 mm, 17-50 g s^-1 (0.06-0.139 m^3 h^-1), 5.3-15.9 m s^-1; Xanthan gum, 0.39-3.3 mm, 2.1-148 g s^-1 (0.008-0.53 m^3 h^-1); 4.5-31.7 m s^-1; petroleum jelly, 2 mm, 7.8-50 g s^-1 (0.06-0.139 m^3 h^-1); 2.5-15.9 m s^-1. For all three soils, rapid initial removal of soil from the jet footprint was followed by the growth of a nearly circular, clean region centred at the point of jet impingement. The rate of removal of soil decreased sharply when the cleaning front reached the hydraulic or film jump. The data for the radial growth removal stage were compared with a mathematical model describing removal of the adhesive soil layer, where the force on the cleaning front was evaluated using the result reported by Wilson et al. (2011): their theory gave the momentum of the liquid film; this momentum was balanced against the soil strength, giving a simple relation between the cleaned radius and time. All three soils showed reasonable agreement with the model, across the range of flow rates and temperatures studied. The kinetic constant in the model was sensitive to soil layer thickness and the nature of the soil. Cleaning tests on the petroleum jelly soils at different temperatures, and separate rheological measurements, showed that the kinetic time constant for coating removal was proportional to the (critical shear stress)^-1.8. There was good agreement between results obtained with vertical and horizontal plates for the PVA and Xanthan gum soil layers. The petroleum jelly results differed, which is partly attributed to differences in preparing the layers of this rheologically complex material.This is the author's accepted manuscript and is under embargo until 3/2/16. The final published version can be found in Chemical Engineering Science here: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000925091400044X

    Role of APOBEC3 in Genetic Diversity among Endogenous Murine Leukemia Viruses

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    The ability of human and murine APOBECs (specifically, APOBEC3) to inhibit infecting retroviruses and retrotransposition of some mobile elements is becoming established. Less clear is the effect that they have had on the establishment of the endogenous proviruses resident in the human and mouse genomes. We used the mouse genome sequence to study diversity and genetic traits of nonecotropic murine leukemia viruses (polytropic [Pmv], modified polytropic [Mpmv], and xenotropic [Xmv] subgroups), the best-characterized large set of recently integrated proviruses. We identified 49 proviruses. In phylogenetic analyses, Pmvs and Mpmvs were monophyletic, whereas Xmvs were divided into several clades, implying a greater number of replication cycles between the integration events. Four distinct primer binding site types (Pro, Gln1, Gln2 and Thr) were dispersed within the phylogeny, indicating frequent mispriming. We analyzed the frequency and context of G-to-A mutations for the role of mA3 in formation of these proviruses. In the Pmv and Mpmv (but not Xmv) groups, mutations attributable to mA3 constituted a large fraction of the total. A significant number of nonsense mutations suggests the absence of purifying selection following mutation. A strong bias of G-to-A relative to C-to-T changes was seen, implying a strand specificity that can only have occurred prior to integration. The optimal sequence context of G-to-A mutations, TTC, was consistent with mA3. At least in the Pmv group, a significant 5′ to 3′ gradient of G-to-A mutations was consistent with mA3 editing. Altogether, our results for the first time suggest mA3 editing immediately preceding the integration event that led to retroviral endogenization, contributing to inactivation of infectivity

    trimAl: a tool for automated alignment trimming in large-scale phylogenetic analyses

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    Summary: Multiple sequence alignments are central to many areas of bioinformatics. It has been shown that the removal of poorly aligned regions from an alignment increases the quality of subsequent analyses. Such an alignment trimming phase is complicated in large-scale phylogenetic analyses that deal with thousands of alignments. Here, we present trimAl, a tool for automated alignment trimming, which is especially suited for large-scale phylogenetic analyses. trimAl can consider several parameters, alone or in multiple combinations, for selecting the most reliable positions in the alignment. These include the proportion of sequences with a gap, the level of amino acid similarity and, if several alignments for the same set of sequences are provided, the level of consistency across different alignments. Moreover, trimAl can automatically select the parameters to be used in each specific alignment so that the signal-to-noise ratio is optimized