1,734 research outputs found

    Crude Birth Rates Among New York City’s Racial/Ethnic Groups and Latino Nationalities In 2002

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    Introduction: This report analyzes crude birth rates among women in the three primary racial/ethnic groups, White, Black, and Latina, and further examines birth rates by age-specific groups in the five boroughs of New York City in 2002. In addition, this report presents the crude birth rates for six Latino nationalities: Mexican, Ecuadorian, Dominican, Colombian, Puerto Rican and Cuban. Methods: The data examined here was derived from the NYC Vital Statistics 2002 Report and the Census 2000 SF4 table on Sex by Age by race and Latino nationality. The birth rates were calculated by dividing live birth numbers (Vital Statistics report) by total population count by age and racial/ethnic group (Census 2000 data) and multiplying this number by 1000. Results: In 2002, birth rates for the general age group between 15 and 50 years of age were highest among Latina women at 63.1 per thousand, followed by Black women at 53.1 per thousand, and were lowest among White women at 50.8 per thousand. Latina women had higher birth rates than White and Black women for the two youngest age specific groups; 15 - 19 and 20 - 29. Latina women in the 15 - 19 year old age-specific group had a birth rate of 57.5 per thousand and 116.2 per thousand for 20 - 29 year olds. The second highest crude birth rates were among Black women, at 45.3 per thousand for 15 - 19 year olds and 96.8 per thousand for 20 - 29 year olds. Birth rates were lowest rates among White women, at 11.6 per thousand for 15 - 19 year olds and 64.3 per thousand for 20 - 29 year olds. Discussion: These data reveal interesting disparities between racial/ethnic groups within NYC as well as between different Latino nationalities and invoke possibilities for further analysis. However, the characteristics within each group which would account for these overall differences remain to be examined. What can be deduced from these data is that Latina and Black women tend to have children earlier than White women. Among all three racial/ethnic groups there was a higher concentration in births in the 20 - 29 and 30 - 39 age groups. However, both Black and Latina women have much higher birth rates than White women in the 15 - 19 year old age specific group

    Indigenous Ecuadorian Mobility Strategies in the Clandestine Migration Journey

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    Based on testimonials of migration journeys of indigenous Cañaris from southern highland Ecuador, this paper examines strategies of mobility and social networking employed by migrants and facilitators in the human smuggling market. Following a series of economic crises in the late 1990s, Ecuadorian transnational migration increased significantly, with a 55.5 percent increase to the United States between 2000 and 2008, and staggering 12,150 percent increase to Spain between 1998 and 2005. This article focuses on the growth of a regional migration industry in the southern high-land region, and pays special attention to the roles of indigenous Cañari migrants and migration merchants. The guiding questions are: how does indigeneity figure in mobility strategies; in what ways is indigenous identity strategically employed in the migration journey; and how might indigenous migration merchants contribute to the expansion of migration? As migration routes become increasingly dangerous, migrants and human smuggling actors employ more innovative and riskier strategies. I contend that while indigenous identity may be used strategically and allow migrants to forge new transnational social networks, indigenous migrants struggle for legibility in the face of ethnic and linguistic discrimination, in communities of origin, along migratory routes, and in migration destinations

    USSR space life sciences digest, issue 27

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    This is the twenty-fifth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 30 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of 2 Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 18 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, aviation medicine, biological rhythms, biospherics, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, endocrinology, enzymology, exobiology, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, immunology, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, radiobiology, and space medicine. A Soviet book review of a British handbook of aviation medicine and a description of the work of the division on aviation and space medicine of the Moscow Physiological Society are also included

    Involvement of NADH Oxidase in Biofilm Formation in Streptococcus sanguinis

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    Biofilms play important roles in microbial communities and are related to infectious diseases. Here, we report direct evidence that a bacterial nox gene encoding NADH oxidase is involved in biofilm formation. A dramatic reduction in biofilm formation was observed in a Streptococcus sanguinis nox mutant under anaerobic conditions without any decrease in growth. The membrane fluidity of the mutant bacterial cells was found to be decreased and the fatty acid composition altered, with increased palmitic acid and decreased stearic acid and vaccenic acid. Extracellular DNA of the mutant was reduced in abundance and bacterial competence was suppressed. Gene expression analysis in the mutant identified two genes with altered expression, gtfP and Idh, which were found to be related to biofilm formation through examination of their deletion mutants. NADH oxidase-related metabolic pathways were analyzed, further clarifying the function of this enzyme in biofilm formation

    Latino Educational Enrollment and Attainment Levels in New York City

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    Introduction: This study examines educational attainment rates among racial/ethnic groups in the US and New York City as of 2000 – particularly Latinos. Methods: Data on Latinos and other racial/ethnic groups were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey, reorganized for public use by the Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota, IPUMSusa. Cases in the dataset were weighted and analyzed to produce population estimates. Results: Statistics show that close to 50% of the Asian and White populations between 18 and 24 years of age are enrolled in undergraduate programs. Enrollment for Blacks and Latinos in respective populations of the same age group, however, is below 30%. Of the four primary groups, Latinos are enrolled at the lowest percentage at 23.4% of 18 to 24 year-old age group. Data on enrollment among the Latino nationalities reveal that Cubans (36.8%), Colombians (36%), and Peruvians (34.6%) show significantly higher proportional enrolment than older, more established migrant groups, such as Puerto Ricans (21.7%) and Dominicans (27.8%) Discussion: The data presented in this report reveal interesting disparities in enrollment and educational attainment levels by ethnicity and Latino nationality and lead to the following questions: - Why are newer groups, such as Cubans, Colombians, and Peruvians, enrolled in college at higher levels than older more established groups, such as Puerto Ricans and Dominicans? - Why are so few Mexicans in New York City enrolling in college? - Why is there greater disparity in enrollment between males and females among Latinos and Blacks, with females enrolled at higher percentages even while these groups show lower enrollment overall? - Why are Cuban males the only ones who enroll at higher levels than females within the same nationality and yet Cuban females reflect a much higher level of Bachelor’s degree attainment

    Enactivism, the Mind-Body Problem and Perceptual Consciousness

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    What is it like not to see? Can the body compensate for lack of vision in experience? The work by Miroslaw Balka, a Polish artist, takes the form of a windowless room 50ft high and 40ft long that is designed to create pitch dark inside. In the turbine hall of the TATE Modern, you walk up a ramp into the container-like room. The further inside you get, the darker it gets, until it is virtually impossible to see the person beside you. You momentarily experience what it is like not to see. The experience of being inside Balka's black box demonstrates not only that we rely on bodily interactions, on "Sensoriomotor Contingencies" with the world, but that with failure of vision our body becomes extra sensitive to its environment. We adapt and behave accordingly. We learn how to navigate through the darkness with the tools for perception that we have left. This thesis talks about what these experiences can show for a philosophy of mind that takes the body seriously. I will present a case for the use of bodily "sensoriomotor knowledge" against internalism. We discuss whether or not the sensorimotor theory can make any progress with the mind-body problem by explaining phenomenal consciousness in terms of a perceivers interaction without the environment

    Crude Birth Rates and Contraceptive Use by Racial/Ethnic Group in the U.S., 1990-2000

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    Introduction: This report analyzes crude birth rates and contraceptive use among women in the three primary racial/ethnic groups, White, Black, and Latina, and further examines birth rates by age-specific groups in the United States between 1990 and 2000. Methods: The data examined here was derived from the NYC Vital Statistics 2002 Report and the Census 2000 SF4 table on Sex by Age by race and Latino nationality. The birth rates were calculated by dividing live birth numbers (Vital Statistics report) by total population count by age and racial/ethnic group (Census 2000 data) and multiplying this number by 1000. Results: In the United States among women over 15 years of age, Latina women had significantly higher birth rates than Black and White women in both 1990 and 2000. Data also reveal that, overall, crude birth rates among Latinas increased by 3.7% from 1990 to 2000 while they decreased among Black women by – 13.8% and White women by -0.4%. While these data reveal national trends among women over the age of fifteen, there are variations when examining the data on crude birth rates among women in age-specific groups. Discussion: While these data show that crude birth rates among Latina women were higher among all age groups, the percentage increase among women in all three racial/ethnic groups in their thirties and forties raises interesting comparative questions regarding family planning and other social, economic and cultural issues. These changes may have been the result of women in the work force choosing to postpone family planning until their careers were established. One question concerns why there were such comparative differentials between each racial/ethnic group. Are more women having children in their thirties because they are working to establish careers in their twenties? If this is so, then how would the comparative differentials between racial/ethnic groups be explained

    Identification of Small-Molecule Inhibitors against Meso-2, 6-Diaminopimelate Dehydrogenase from Porphyromonas gingivalis

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    Species-specific antimicrobial therapy has the potential to combat the increasing threat of antibiotic resistance and alteration of the human microbiome. We therefore set out to demonstrate the beginning of a pathogen-selective drug discovery method using the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis as a model. Through our knowledge of metabolic networks and essential genes we identified a “druggable” essential target, meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase, which is found in a limited number of species. We adopted a high-throughput virtual screen method on the ZINC chemical library to select a group of potential small-molecule inhibitors. Meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase from P. gingivaliswas first expressed and purified in Escherichia coli then characterized for enzymatic inhibitor screening studies. Several inhibitors with similar structural scaffolds containing a sulfonamide core and aromatic substituents showed dose-dependent inhibition. These compounds were further assayed showing reasonable whole-cell activity and the inhibition mechanism was determined. We conclude that the establishment of this target and screening strategy provides a model for the future development of new antimicrobials

    Transnational Indigenous Migration: Racialized Geographies and Power in Southern Highland Ecuador

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    This study examines the shifting landscape of social and economic inequalities in the remittance-dominated region of southern highland Ecuador, focusing on the transformations brought about by increased international migration since the early 2000s. The broader question is whether or not transnational migration has facilitated political and social upward mobility among indigenous communities. More specifically I ask: in what ways does indigenous identity figure in contemporary international migration practices, how does transnational indigenous migration complicate bounded notions of rural indigenous life, and how might the strategies employed by indigenous migrants transform social and economic inequalities in two small towns in the Cañar province? In order to answer these questions, I engage a theoretical framework which draws from transnationalism and mobility studies and migration industry literature in order to more accurately depict the multiple and intersecting dimensions of contemporary indigenous migration

    Specialist palliative medicine physicians and nurses accuracy at predicting imminent death (within 72 hours) : a short report

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    Research suggests that clinicians are not very accurate at prognosticating in palliative care. The 'horizon effect' suggests that accuracy ought to be better when the survival of patients is shorter. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of specialist palliative care clinicians at identifying which patients are likely to die within 72 hours. In a secondary data analysis of a prospective observational study, specialist palliative care doctors and nurses (in a hospice and a hospital palliative care team) provided survival predictions (yes/no/uncertain) about which patients would die within 72 hours. Survival predictions were obtained for 49 patients. A prediction from a nurse was obtained for 37/49 patients. A prediction from a doctor was obtained for 46/49 patients. In total, 23 (47%)/49 patients actually died within 72 hours of assessment. Nurses accurately predicted the outcome in 27 (73%)/37 cases. Doctors accurately predicted the outcome in 30 (65%)/46 cases. When comparing predictions given on the same patients (27 [55%]/49), nurses were slightly better at recognising imminent death than doctors (positive predictive value (the proportion of patients who died when the clinician predicted death)=79% vs 60%, respectively). The difference in c-statistics (nurses 0.82 vs doctors 0.63) was not significant (p=0.13). Even when patients are in the terminal phase and close to death, clinicians are not very good at predicting how much longer they will survive. Further research is warranted to improve prognostication in this population. [Abstract copyright: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ.
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