57 research outputs found

    Geographic information systems and perceptual dialectology: a method for processing draw-a-map data

    Get PDF
    This article presents a new method for processing data gathered using the "draw-a-map” task in perceptual dialectology (PD) studies. Such tasks produce large numbers of maps containing many lines indicating nonlinguists' perceptions of the location and extent of dialect areas. Although individual maps are interesting, and numerical data relating to the relative prominence of dialect areas can be extracted, an important value of the draw-a-map task is in aggregating data. This was always an aim of the contemporary PD method, although the nature of the data has meant that this has not always been possible. Here, we argue for the use of geographic information systems (GIS) in order to aggregate, process, and display PD data. Using case studies from the United Kingdom and Germany, we present examples of data processed using GIS and illustrate the future possibilities for the use of GIS in PD researc

    Drawing areal information from a corpus of noisy dialect data

    Full text link
    This article is an analysis of linguistic survey data representing German dialects in Switzerland in 1933/34 based on the so-called Wenker sentences. The data are impressionistic in terms of applied phonetic transcriptions, which were produced by non-specialists using the Latin alphabet. Due to the lack of pre-defined standardization, the phonetic transcriptions are very heterogeneous. From a technical perspective, this leads to very noisy data, which is why the validity of the Wenker data in general and the Swiss Wenker data in particular has been questioned. Using methods from computational linguistics, we compare, for the first time, Wenker data with linguistic data collected at virtually the same time by linguistics professionals. Direct comparison with a sample from the published atlas of German-speaking Switzerland (SDS) reveals that despite the noisiness of the data, they nevertheless provide reliable information, e.g., in terms of the spatial structuring of Swiss dialects. The study is thus a successful pilot for other corpus-based studies dealing with unstructured Wenker data in other regions

    Abbildungsband zur Arbeit "Subjektive Dialekträume im alemannischen Dreiländereck"

    Full text link
    Dieser Band enthält einen Teil der Farbabbildungen der Arbeit "Subjektive Dialekträume im alemannischen Dreiländereck", die 2014 im Olms-Verlag in Hildesheim in der Reihe "Deutsche Dialektgeographie" erschienen ist

    Keine Haftung fĂĽr Kunduz?

    Get PDF

    A quantitative approach to Swiss German - Dialectometric analyses and comparisons of linguistic levels

    Get PDF
    German-speaking Switzerland can certainly be regarded as one of the liveliest and at the same time best researched dialect areas in Central Europe. It is all the more surprising that dialectometric analyses in this area have only recently been performed and none of them included an investigation into the level of syntax. In this paper we pursue two goals: First, we present digital data that has been made available in recent years on the basis of the Sprachatlas der deutschen Schweiz (SDS) and the Syntaktischer Atlas der deutschen Schweiz (SADS). Our second goal is to present dialectometric analyses performed with this data. A special focus is put on the comparison of different linguistic levels (lexis, phonology, morphology and syntax). Our methods include hierarchical cluster analyses (of the whole dataset as well as of the linguistic levels), correlations (between pairs of linguistic levels and between linguistic levels and geography) and parameter maps which allow us to draw conclusions about the distributions of innovative and conservative regions, dialect centers and transition zones. Our results show that while all four levels generally yield similar geographic patterns (dynamic areas in the North vs. conservative areas in the South, agreement of dialect and cantonal borders, high correlations with geography), syntax deviates most from the other levels

    Folk linguistics

    Full text link

    Nogo-A expressed in Schwann cells impairs axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury

    Get PDF
    ĂŽnjured axons in mammalian peripheral nerves often regenerate successfully over long distances, in contrast to axons in the brain and spinal cord (CNS). Neurite growth-inhibitory proteins, including the recently cloned membrane protein Nogo-A, are enriched in the CNS, in particular in myelin. Nogo-A is not detectable in peripheral nerve myelin. Using regulated transgenic expression of Nogo-A in peripheral nerve Schwann cells, we show that axonal regeneration and functional recovery are impaired after a sciatic nerve crush. Nogo-A thus overrides the growth-permissive and -promoting effects of the lesioned peripheral nerve, demonstrating its in vivo potency as an inhibitor of axonal regeneration

    Incidence of sexually transmitted infections and association with behavioural factors: Time-to-event analysis of a large pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) cohort.

    Get PDF
    OBJECTIVES Our objective was to obtain long-term data on the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and their association with behavioural factors after widespread pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) implementation. METHODS This was a time-to-event analysis of a national PrEP cohort in Switzerland (SwissPrEPared study). Participants were people without HIV interested in taking PrEP with at least two STI screening visits. Primary outcomes were incidence rate of gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and syphilis. The association between behavioural factors and STI diagnosis was expressed using hazard ratios. We adjusted for testing frequency and calendar year. RESULTS This analysis included 3907 participants enrolled between April 2019 and April 2022, yielding 3815.7 person-years of follow-up for gonorrhoea (15 134 screenings), 3802.5 for chlamydia (15 141 screenings), and 3858.6 for syphilis (15 001 screenings). The median age was 39 years (interquartile range [IQR] 32-47), 93.8% (n = 3664) identified as men who have sex with men (MSM). The incidence was 22.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 21.3-24.4) per 100 person-years for gonorrhoea, 26.3 (95% CI 24.7-28.0) for chlamydia, and 4.4 (95% CI 3.8-5.1) for syphilis. Yearly incidence rates decreased between 2019 (all bacterial STIs: 81.6; 95% CI 59.1-109.9) and 2022 (all bacterial STIs: 49.8; 95% CI 44.6-55.3). Participants reporting chemsex substance use were at higher risk of incident STIs, as were those reporting multiple sexual partners. Younger age was associated with a higher risk of gonorrhoea and chlamydia. CONCLUSIONS Incidence rates of bacterial STIs decreased over time. Young MSM, those with multiple partners, and those using chemsex substances were at increased risk of STIs

    Incidence of sexually transmitted infections and association with behavioural factors: Time-to-event analysis of a large pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) cohort

    Full text link
    OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to obtain long-term data on the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and their association with behavioural factors after widespread pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) implementation. METHODS: This was a time-to-event analysis of a national PrEP cohort in Switzerland (SwissPrEPared study). Participants were people without HIV interested in taking PrEP with at least two STI screening visits. Primary outcomes were incidence rate of gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and syphilis. The association between behavioural factors and STI diagnosis was expressed using hazard ratios. We adjusted for testing frequency and calendar year. RESULTS: This analysis included 3907 participants enrolled between April 2019 and April 2022, yielding 3815.7 person-years of follow-up for gonorrhoea (15 134 screenings), 3802.5 for chlamydia (15 141 screenings), and 3858.6 for syphilis (15 001 screenings). The median age was 39 years (interquartile range [IQR] 32-47), 93.8% (n = 3664) identified as men who have sex with men (MSM). The incidence was 22.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 21.3-24.4) per 100 person-years for gonorrhoea, 26.3 (95% CI 24.7-28.0) for chlamydia, and 4.4 (95% CI 3.8-5.1) for syphilis. Yearly incidence rates decreased between 2019 (all bacterial STIs: 81.6; 95% CI 59.1-109.9) and 2022 (all bacterial STIs: 49.8; 95% CI 44.6-55.3). Participants reporting chemsex substance use were at higher risk of incident STIs, as were those reporting multiple sexual partners. Younger age was associated with a higher risk of gonorrhoea and chlamydia. CONCLUSIONS: Incidence rates of bacterial STIs decreased over time. Young MSM, those with multiple partners, and those using chemsex substances were at increased risk of STIs

    The future of dialects: Selected papers from Methods in Dialectology XV

    Get PDF
    Traditional dialects have been encroached upon by the increasing mobility of their speakers and by the onslaught of national languages in education and mass media. Typically, older dialects are “leveling” to become more like national languages. This is regrettable when the last articulate traces of a culture are lost, but it also promotes a complex dynamics of interaction as speakers shift from dialect to standard and to intermediate compromises between the two in their forms of speech. Varieties of speech thus live on in modern communities, where they still function to mark provenance, but increasingly cultural and social provenance as opposed to pure geography. They arise at times from the need to function throughout the different groups in society, but they also may have roots in immigrants’ speech, and just as certainly from the ineluctable dynamics of groups wishing to express their identity to themselves and to the world. The future of dialects is a selection of the papers presented at Methods in Dialectology XV, held in Groningen, the Netherlands, 11-15 August 2014. While the focus is on methodology, the volume also includes specialized studies on varieties of Catalan, Breton, Croatian, (Belgian) Dutch, English (in the US, the UK and in Japan), German (including Swiss German), Italian (including Tyrolean Italian), Japanese, and Spanish as well as on heritage languages in Canada
    • …
    corecore