42,785 research outputs found

    A selective control information detection scheme for OFDM receivers

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    In wireless communications, both control information and payload (user-data) are concurrently transmitted and required to be successfully recovered. This paper focuses on block-level detection, which is applicable for detecting transmitted control information, particularly when this information is selected or chosen from a finite set of information that are known at both transmitting and receiving devices. Using an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing architecture, this paper investigates and evaluates the performance of a time-domain decision criterion in comparison with a form of Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation method. Unlike the ML method, the proposed time-domain detection technique requires no channel estimation as it uses the correlation (in the time-domain) that exists between the received and the transmitted selective information as a means of detection. In comparison with the ML method, results show that the proposed method offers improved detection performance, particularly when the control information consists of at least 16. However, the implementation of the proposed method requires a slightly increased number of mathematical computations

    X-ray observations of the Ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS19254-7245 (The Superantennae)

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    We present ROSAT HRI and ASCA observations of the well known ULIRG IRAS19254-7245 (the Superantennae). The object is not detected by ROSAT yielding a 3\sigma upper limit of L_x ~8x10^{41} erg/s in the 0.1-2 keV band. However, we obtain a clear detection by ASCA yielding a luminosity in the 2-10 keV band of 2 \times 10^{42}erg/s. Its X-ray spectrum is very hard, equivalent to a photon index of Gamma=1.0+-0.35. We therefore, attempt to model the X-ray data with a "scatterer" model in which the intrinsic X-ray emission along our line of sight is obscured by an absorbing screen while some fraction, f, is scattered into our line of sight by an ionized medium; this is the standard model for the X-ray emission in obscured (but non Compton-thick) Seyfert galaxies. We obtain an absorbing column of 2x10^{23}cm^{-2} for a power-law photon index of Gamma=1.9, an order of magnitude above the column estimated on the basis of optical observations; the percentage of the scattered emission is high (~20%). Alternatively, a model where most of the X-ray emission comes from reflection on a Compton thick torus (N_H>10^{24} cm^{-2}) cannot be ruled out. We do not detect an Fe line at 6.4 keV; however, the upper limit (90%) to the equivalent width of the 6.4 keV line is high (~3 keV). All the above suggest that most of the X-ray emission originates in an highly obscured Seyfert-2 nucleus.Comment: 5 pages, 1 figure, 1 table, To appear in MNRA

    A joint OFDM PAPR reduction and data decoding scheme with no SI estimation

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    The need for side information (SI) estimation poses a major challenge when selected mapping (SLM) is implemented to reduce peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Recent studies on pilot-assisted SI estimation procedures suggest that it is possible to determine the SI without the need for SI transmission. However, SI estimation adds to computational complexity and implementation challenges of practical SLM-OFDM receivers. To address these technical issues, this paper presents the use of a pilot-assisted cluster-based phase modulation and demodulation procedure called embedded coded modulation (ECM). The ECM technique uses a slightly modified SLM approach to reduce PAPR and to enable data recovery with no SI transmission and no SI estimation. In the presence of some non-linear amplifier distortion, it is shown that the ECM method achieves similar data decoding performance as conventional SLM-OFDM receiver that assumed a perfectly known SI and when the SI is estimated using a frequency-domain correlation approach. However, when the number of OFDM subcarriers is small and due to the clustering in ECM, the modified SLM produces a smaller PAPR reduction gain compared with conventional SLM

    A low complexity SI sequence estimator for pilot-aided SLM–OFDM systems

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    Selected mapping (SLM) is a well-known method for reducing peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. However, as a consequence of implementing SLM, OFDM receivers often require estimation of some side information (SI) in order to achieve successful data recovery. Existing SI estimation schemes have very high computational complexities that put additional constraints on limited resources and increase system complexity. To address this problem, an alternative SLM approach that facilitates estimation of SI in the form of phase detection is presented. Simulations show that this modified SLM approach produces similar PAPR reduction performance when compared to conventional SLM. With no amplifier distortion and in the presence of non-linear power amplifier distortion, the proposed SI estimation approach achieves similar data recovery performance as both standard SLM–OFDM (with perfect SI estimation) and also when SI estimation is implemented through the use of an existing frequency-domain correlation (FDC) decision metric. In addition, the proposed method significantly reduces computational complexity compared with the FDC scheme and an ML estimation scheme

    Similarity and dissimilarity as evidence in perceptual categorization

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    In exemplar models the similarities between a new stimulus and each category exemplar constitute positive evidence for category membership. In contrast, other models assume that, if the new stimulus is sufficiently dissimilar to a category member, then that dissimilarity constitutes evidence against category membership. We propose a new similarity–dissimilarity exemplar model that provides a framework for integrating these two types of accounts. The evidence for a category is assumed to be the summed similarity to members of that category plus the summed dissimilarity to members of competing categories. The similarity–dissimilarity exemplar model is shown to mimic the standard exemplar model very closely in the unidimensional domain

    Sequence effects in categorization of simple perceptual stimuli

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    Categorization research typically assumes that the cognitive system has access to a (more or less noisy) representation of the absolute magnitudes of the properties of stimuli and that this information is used in reaching a categorization decision. However, research on identification of simple perceptual stimuli suggests that people have very poor representations of absolute magnitude information and that judgments about absolute magnitude are strongly influenced by preceding material. The experiments presented here investigate such sequence effects in categorization tasks. Strong sequence effects were found. Classification of a borderline stimulus was more accurate when preceded by a distant member of the opposite category than by a distant member of the same category. It is argued that this category contrast effect cannot be accounted for by extant exemplar or decision-bound models of categorization. The effect suggests the use of relative magnitude information in categorization. A memory and contrast model illustrates how relative magnitude information may be used in categorization

    ROSAT observations of two 'cooling flow' EMSS Galaxies

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    We present ROSAT observations of two luminous L~10^44 erg/s EMSS galaxies, MS1019+5139 and MS1209+3917, previously classified as 'cooling flow' galaxies. MS1019+5139 does not appear to be spatially extended (<13 kpc) while its spectrum is well fit by a power law with Gamma = 1.73 +0.19-0.18; X-ray variability on a timescale of ~ years is also clearly detected. MS1209+3917 shows no evidence of spatial extension (<50 kpc) but it shows variability, while its spectrum can be fit with thermal bremsstrahlung emission (kT=1.8 +0.9-0.4 keV) or a power law model (Gamma = 2.50 +0.44-0.42, but with excess photoelectric absorption above the Galactic value). All the above argue against thermal emission from a group of galaxies or a galaxy but in favour of an AGN (possibly BL Lac) interpretation. We conclude that no 'normal' galaxies with high X-ray luminosities have yet been detected in the EMSS survey that could be significant contributors to the X-ray background.Comment: 6 pages, LaTeX, 6 postscript figures included, to appear in MNRA

    Ephedrine requirements are reduced during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section in preeclampsia

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    Part of the Portfolio Thesis by Geoffrey H. Sharwood-Smith: The inferior vena caval compression theory of hypotension in obstetric spinal anaesthesia: studies in normal and preeclamptic pregnancy, a literature review and revision of fundamental concepts, available at http://hdl.handle.net/10023/1815Background: Despite controversy over the haemodynamically safest blockade for caesarean section in women with severe preeclampsia, an increasing number of anaesthetists now opt for spinal anaesthesia. In a previous study we found that spinal compared to epidural anaesthesia offered an equally safe but more effective option for these patients. The current study was designed to compare the hypotension induced by spinal anaesthesia, as measured by ephedrine requirement, between 20 normotensive and 20 severely preeclamptic but haemodynamically stabilised women. Method: Standardised spinal anaesthesia was instituted and ephedrine was given in boluses of 6 mg if the systolic pressure fell >20% from the baseline, or if the patient exhibited symptoms of hypotension. Results: The mean ephedrine requirement of the normotensive group (27.9 ± 11.6 mg) was significantly greater (P < 0.01) than that of the preeclamptic group (16.4 ± 15.0 mg). Conclusion: This suggests that the hypotension induced by spinal anaesthesia in women with severe but haemodynamically stabilised preeclampsia, is less than that of normotensive patients.Publisher PD

    Automatic holographic droplet analysis for liquid fuel sprays

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    The basic scheme for automated holographic analysis involves an optical system for reconstruction of the three dimensional real image of the droplet field, a spatial scanning system to transport a digitizing X-y image sensor through the real image, and processing algorithms for droplet recognition which establish the droplet sizes and positions. The hardware for system demonstrated includes the expanded and collimated beam from a 5 mW helium-neon laser for hologram reconstruction, an imaging lens for magnification of the real image field, and a video camera and digitizer providing 512-by-512 pixel resolution with 8-bit digitization. A mechanical stage is used to scan the hologram in three dimensional space, maintaining constant image magnification. A test droplet hologram is used for development and testing of the image processing algorithms
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