54 research outputs found

    Clinical applications of amylase: Novel perspectives

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    Clinical Functional Genomics

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    Functional genomics is the study of how the genome and its products, including RNA and proteins, function and interact to affect different biological processes. The field of functional genomics includes transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and epigenomics, as these all relate to controlling the genome leading to expression of particular phenotypes. By studying whole genomes—clinical genomics, transcriptomes and epigenomes—functional genomics allows the exploration of the diverse relationship between genotype and phenotype, not only for humans as a species but also in individuals, allowing an understanding and evaluation of how the functional genome ‘contributes’ to different diseases. Functional variation in disease can help us better understand that disease, although it is currently limited in terms of ethnic diversity, and will ultimately give way to more personalized treatment plans

    Transcriptomic analysis of stem cells from chorionic villi uncovers the impact of chromosomes 2, 6 and 22 in the clinical manifestations of Down syndrome

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    Background: Down syndrome (DS) clinical multisystem condition is generally considered the result of a genetic imbalance generated by the extra copy of chromosome 21. Recent discoveries, however, demonstrate that the molecular mechanisms activated in DS compared to euploid individuals are more complex than previously thought. Here, we utilize mesenchymal stem cells from chorionic villi (CV) to uncover the role of comprehensive functional genomics-based understanding of DS complexity. Methods: Next-generation sequencing coupled with bioinformatic analysis was performed on CV obtained from women carrying fetuses with DS (DS-CV) to reveal specific genome-wide transcriptional changes compared to their euploid counterparts. Functional assays were carried out to confirm the biological processes identified as enriched in DS-CV compared to CV (i.e., cell cycle, proliferation features, immunosuppression and ROS production). Results: Genes located on chromosomes other than the canonical 21 (Ch. 2, 6 and 22) are responsible for the impairment of life-essential pathways, including cell cycle regulation, innate immune response and reaction to external stimuli were found to be differentially expressed in DS-CV. Experimental validation confirmed the key role of the biological pathways regulated by those genes in the etiology of such a multisystem condition. Conclusions: NGS dataset generated in this study highlights the compromised functionality in the proliferative rate and in the innate response of DS-associated clinical conditions and identifies DS-CV as suitable tools for the development of specifically tailored, personalized intervention modalities

    Functional Analysis of Non-Genetic Resistance to Platinum in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Reveals a Role for the MBD3-NuRD Complex in Resistance Development

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    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal disease of the female reproductive tract, and although most patients respond to the initial treatment with platinum (cPt)-based compounds, relapse is very common. We investigated the role of epigenetic changes in cPt-sensitive and -resistant EOC cell lines and found distinct differences in their enhancer landscape. Clinical data revealed that two genes (JAK1 and FGF10), which gained large enhancer clusters in resistant EOC cell lines, could provide novel biomarkers for early patient stratification with statistical independence for JAK1. To modulate the enhancer remodeling process and prevent the acquisition of cPt resistance in EOC cells, we performed a chromatin-focused RNAi screen in the presence of cPt. We identified subunits of the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NuRD) complex as critical factors sensitizing the EOC cell line A2780 to platinum treatment. Suppression of the Methyl-CpG Binding Domain Protein 3 (MBD3) sensitized cells and prevented the establishment of resistance under prolonged cPt exposure through alterations of H3K27ac at enhancer regions, which are differentially regulated in cPt-resistant cells, leading to a less aggressive phenotype. Our work establishes JAK1 as an independent prognostic marker and the NuRD complex as a potential target for combinational therapy

    Progesterone Metabolism by Human and Rat Hepatic and Intestinal Tissue

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    Following oral administration, the bioavailability of progesterone is low and highly variable. As a result, no clinically relevant, natural progesterone oral formulation is available. After oral delivery, first-pass metabolism initially occurs in the intestines; however, very little information on progesterone metabolism in this organ currently exists. The aim of this study is to investigate the contributions of liver and intestine to progesterone clearance. In the presence of NADPH, a rapid clearance of progesterone was observed in human and rat liver samples (t1/2 2.7 and 2.72 min, respectively). The rate of progesterone depletion in intestine was statistically similar between rat and human (t1/2 197.6 min in rat and 157.2 min in human). However, in the absence of NADPH, progesterone was depleted at a significantly lower rate in rat intestine compared to human. The roles of aldo keto reductases (AKR), xanthine oxidase (XAO) and aldehyde oxidase (AOX) in progesterone metabolism were also investigated. The rate of progesterone depletion was found to be significantly reduced by AKR1C, 1D1 and 1B1 in human liver and by AKR1B1 in human intestine. The inhibition of AOX also caused a significant reduction in progesterone degradation in human liver, whereas no change was observed in the presence of an XAO inhibitor. Understanding the kinetics of intestinal as well as liver metabolism is important for the future development of progesterone oral formulations. This novel information can inform decisions on the development of targeted formulations and help predict dosage regimens

    Exosomes as Reconfigurable Therapeutic Systems

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    POISED-5, a portable on-board electrochemical impedance spectroscopy biomarker analysis device

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