238 research outputs found

    The Hydrogeological Setting of Ghana and the Potential for Underground Dams

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    Increasing human population, changing lifestyles and environmental considerations have resulted in increased utilization of groundwater resources worldwide. Thus, in turn, has led to the decline of groundwater levels in some countries and Ghana is no exception to this problem. To augment the availability of groundwater resources for various uses, numerous techniques have been developed in many part of the world, one of which is the construction of underground dams. The successful construction and utilization of underground dams, however, depends very much on the physical and hydrogeological conditions at the dam sites. Ghana is underlain by Precambrian crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks ; and Paleozoic consolidated sedimentary formations. There are further subdivided and described locally as the Birimian, Dahomeyan, Buem, Togo Series, Tarkwaian, Granites, Voltain, Coastal Block Fault, Coastal Plain and Quaternary Alluvium. The review of these and the pre-requisite conditions necessary for the construction of underground dams indicate that underground dams could be constructed and utilized in some parts of Ghana, especially where the overburden is shallow, in the Dahomeyan granites and in the recent formations consisting of alluvial and coastal sands and gravels. This paper is part of a continuing research programme being carried out by the authors

    Population mapping in informal settlements with high-resolution satellite imagery and equitable ground-truth

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    We propose a generalizable framework for the population estimation of dense, informal settlements in low-income urban areas–so called ’slums’–using high-resolution satellite imagery. Precise population estimates are a crucial factor for efficient resource allocations by government authorities and NGO’s, for instance in medical emergencies. We utilize equitable ground-truth data, which is gathered in collaboration with local communities: Through training and community mapping, the local population contributes their unique domain knowledge, while also maintaining agency over their data. This practice allows us to avoid carrying forward potential biases into the modeling pipeline, which might arise from a less rigorous ground-truthing approach. We contextualize our approach in respect to the ongoing discussion within the machine learning community, aiming to make real-world machine learning applications more inclusive, fair and accountable. Because of the resource intensive ground-truth generation process, our training data is limited. We propose a gridded population estimation model, enabling flexible and customizable spatial resolutions. We test our pipeline on three experimental site in Nigeria, utilizing pre-trained and fine-tune vision networks to overcome data sparsity. Our findings highlight the difficulties of transferring common benchmark models to real-world tasks. We discuss this and propose steps forward

    Capacity building on agricultural insurance for aggregators in Northern Ghana

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    Farming is a risky business. Shocks such as drought, flood, pests or disease can make it difficult for farmers to invest in new productive options, such as seeds or fertilizer. These shocks are often regional, reverberating past the level of the individual smallholder. This makes it equally difficult for aggregators such as seed companies, input providers, agri-shops, seed growers and for commercial farmers, all of whom rely on the yields of a large number of smallholders or out-growers. Agricultural insurance is one way to mitigate this risk, unlocking new markets and making existing markets more profitable Most training on insurance is either designed for poor smallholder farmers, or for very large aggregators (e.g. a country-wide fertilizer company). Less attention has been paid to small and medium level aggregators, who might have tens or hundreds of acres, or have a relationship with a smaller number of out growers (tens to thousands). However, connecting with these stakeholders is one method of scaling insurance in a sustainable fashion. The local nature of many of the aggregators allows insurance to reach smallholders without personally visiting every village. The aggregators are also typically from the local communities and can act as champions for new initiatives. These same incentives for connecting with aggregators also hold true for other CCAFS and rural development initiatives. The aim of this workshop was to reach a group of local aggregators in rural Ghana with tailored insurance capacity building material, detailed in this report. A secondary aim was to gather their feedback about their experiences with agricultural insurance, along with jointly designed ideas about how insurance could more easily fit in with their practices

    Leveraging Social Media Platforms in Marketing Library Services In Ghanaian Universities

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    With the continuous improvement of library services across the globe owing to automation, technological advancement, and growth in student population, rapid access to social media (SM) platforms has become a vital part of keeping present and would-be users well-versed about academic library service. The study brings to bear on the use of SM platforms in promoting library services. Using the survey approach, one hundred and seventy-six (176) library users of the University of Ghana (UG), Library System (LS) were selected to provide primary data via questionnaires. All respondents were selected through simple random sampling. The SPSS was used to generate Pearson correlation, mean, and standard deviation results. The results revealed that the effectiveness of SM platforms has a significant positive relationship with users’ perception and its usefulness. The deployment of SM as a marketing tool in university libraries, marketing library resources, and information centres can be promoted greatly. Moreover, few challenges encountered by library users in using the SM include lack of privacy, the confidentiality of information, power cut or shortage, and inadequate training opportunities for the UGLS staff among others. The study presents opportunities useful for professional librarians

    Combining deficit irrigation and nutrient amendment enhances the water productivity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in the tropics

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    Water availability for irrigation farming is one of the greatest challenges associated with the increasing spatio-temporal effects of climate change and variability on tomato production, especially in tropical regions. This study was conducted to demonstrate the combined effect of irrigation and nutrient management as a water-saving strategy to maximize nutrient and water productivity in tomato production. The research was conducted in a screen house at the CSIR-Crops Research Institute (CSIR-CRI), Kumasi, Ghana using the split-plot design in the 2020 and 2021 cropping seasons. The main plot consisted of a single full irrigation at 100% recommended crop water requirement and two deficit irrigation levels (75 and 50% of the crop water requirement). The subplots consisted of two nutrient amendments (inorganic fertilizer and organic compost) and a control (without any nutrient amendment). Data from the research was used to parameterize the DSSAT CCROPGRO model to simulate the interactive effect of irrigation and nutrient management on the yield of tomatoes. Plant height and stem girth did not have a specific influence on tomato yield, but the number of branches had a positive effect on tomato yield. The combined use of inorganic fertilizer and full irrigation was found to improve tomato yield up to 7691.4 and 9009.9 kg/ha whereas treatment with no fertilizer application at 50% deficit irrigation recorded the lowest tomato yield of 1423.9 and 1739.2 kg/ha in 2020 and 2021, respectively. For the two deficit irrigations (50 and 75% ETc), organic compost produced the highest tomato yield. Deficit irrigation recorded higher crop water productivity (CWP) compared to full irrigation. At 50% deficit irrigation, organic compost recorded the highest CWP of 4.54 kg/m3 in 2020 while inorganic fertilizer recorded the highest CWP of 5.52 kg/m3 in 2021. No fertilizer at full irrigation recorded the lowest CWP of 1.37 and 1.67 kg/m3 in 2020 and 2021, respectively. This study has revealed that deficit irrigation with organic compost has the same effect on yield and water productivity as full irrigation with inorganic fertilizer. The strong agreement observed between the measured and simulated yields under the different irrigation and nutrient management shows that the DSSAT CROPGRO tomato model can be used to simulate tomato fruit yield under future climate scenarios. However, the general overestimation of the measured tomato yield shows the limitations of the model to simulate the real-world complexity of cropping systems under controlled conditions. This calls for more research into crop system modeling in controlled environment agriculture

    HIV diagnosis disclosure to infected children and adolescents; challenges of family caregivers in the Central Region of Ghana

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    Background Disclosure of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) to infected older children and adolescents is essential for both personal health maintenance and HIV prevention within the larger population. Non-disclosure of HIV status has been identified as one of the potential barriers to optimum adherence especially in children and adolescents. Like many other countries in the SSA region, Ghana has significant number of children and adolescents infected by HIV, who have increased survival times, due to increased access to ART. However, both family caregivers and healthcare workers face an array of challenges with the disclosure process, including the timing, what information about the child’s HIV status should be shared with him/her and how to go about it. The aim of the study was to identify family caregiver factors associated with non-disclosure of HIV status to infected children and adolescents accessing Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) at the three main ART sites within the Central Region of Ghana. Methods A quantitative analytical survey was conducted among 103 family caregivers of HIV infected children (aged 6–17 years) assessing ART services in the Central Region of Ghana. Data were analyzed using SSPS version 21. Results The age range of caregivers was 20–69 years. The study found a low disclosure rate (23.3%) among caregivers. Majority of the caregivers (80.6%) lacked knowledge on the process of disclosure (how and what to tell child), and majority (64%) also had never received guidance about the disclosure process from their healthcare providers. The main barriers to disclosure were caregiver lack of knowledge regarding the disclosure process and when to disclose, the fear of child’s reaction, and fear of stigmatization and associated negative social consequences. Conclusion These findings suggest a lesser involvement of health care providers in preparing caregivers for the disclosure process. This therefore highlight the need for the National HIV/AIDS/STI Control Program to strengthen the involvement and training of healthcare providers in HIV diagnosis disclosure to infected children, based on context-specific policy guidelines informed by the WHO recommendations

    Divergent climate smartness priority setting by practitioners vis-à-vis advisors: implications on inclusivity, one-health achievement, and enabling environment

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    By capturing the prioritization of 22 innovations by 71 farmers against those of advisors, this paper examines the level of awareness and contextualized conceptualization of 31 indicators of Climate Smartness Plus (equity, one health and enabling environment). Concordance analysis reveals differences in prioritization among farmers and agricultural advisors: with advisors giving relatively higher ratings as they set broader goals than farmers. We find that farmers give equal priority to productivity, adaptation, and mitigation while advisors overly prioritise productivit

    Ghanaian farmers are using AICCRA-Ghana advisories to improve their climate-sensitive decision making - Ghana Outcome Impact Case Report (OICR for PDO 2)

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    Ghanaian farmers are using AICCRA-Ghana advisories to improve their climate-sensitive decision making

    Four AICCRA-Ghana partners are using project-generated climate information services to support farmer resilience to climatic shocks| Outcome Impact Case Report (OICR) for PDO 1

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    Ghana partners are using project-generated climate information services to support farmer resilience to climatic shock

    Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium africanum in Ghana

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    BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium africanum comprises two phylogenetic lineages within the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and is an important cause of human tuberculosis (TB) in West Africa. The reasons for this geographic restriction of M. africanum remain unclear. Here, we performed a prospective study to explore associations between the characteristics of TB patients and the MTBC lineages circulating in Ghana. METHOD: We genotyped 1,211 MTBC isolates recovered from pulmonary TB patients recruited between 2012 and 2014 using single nucleotide polymorphism typing and spoligotyping. Associations between patient and pathogen variables were assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 1,211 MTBC isolates analysed, 71.9 % (871) belonged to Lineage 4; 12.6 % (152) to Lineage 5 (also known as M. africanum West-Africa 1), 9.2 % (112) to Lineage 6 (also known as M. africanum West-Africa 2) and 0.6 % (7) to Mycobacterium bovis. Univariate analysis revealed that Lineage 6 strains were less likely to be isoniazid resistant compared to other strains (odds ratio = 0.25, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.05-0.77, P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that Lineage 5 was significantly more common in patients from the Ewe ethnic group (adjusted odds ratio (adjOR): 2.79; 95 % CI: 1.47-5.29, P < 0.001) and Lineage 6 more likely to be found among HIV-co-infected TB patients (adjOR = 2.2; 95 % confidence interval (CI: 1.32-3.7, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm the importance of M. africanum in Ghana and highlight the need to differentiate between Lineage 5 and Lineage 6, as these lineages differ in associated patient variables
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