500 research outputs found

    Informing policy and practice on insect pollinator declines: Tensions between conservation and animal welfare

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    Climate change, agricultural intensification, and other anthropogenic ecosystem challenges have caused declines in the diversity and abundance of insect pollinators. In response to these declines, entomologists have called for greater attention to insect pollinator conservation. Conservation primarily aims to protect groups of non-human animals‚ÄĒpopulations or species‚ÄĒwith only secondary concern for the welfare of individual animals. While conservation and animal welfare goals are sometimes aligned, they often are not. And because animal welfare comes second, it tends to be sacrificed when in tension with conversation priorities. Consider, for example, lethal sampling to monitor many pollinator populations. Growing evidence suggests that the welfare of individual insect pollinators may be morally significant, particularly in the Hymenoptera and Diptera. Considering insect welfare in conservation practices and policies presents many challenges as, in the face of rapid, anthropogenic change, it may be impossible to avoid harming individual animals while promoting diverse populations. We suggest some practical, implementable strategies that can allow for more robust integration of animal welfare goals into insect pollinator conservation. By following these strategies, entomologists may be able to find policies and practices that promote the health of ecosystems and the individual animals within them

    Reversal of Long-Term Trends in Ethane Identified from the Global Atmosphere Watch Reactive Gases Measurement Network

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    Reactive gases play an important role in climate and air pollution issues. They control the self-cleansing capability of the troposphere, contribute to air pollution and acid deposition, regulate the lifetimes and provide tracers for deciphering sources and sinks for greenhouse gases. Within GAW, the focus is placed on long-term, high-quality observations of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). More than 100 stations worldwide carry out reactive gases measurements with data reported to two World Data Centers. The reactive gases program in GAW cooperates The WMO GAW Reactive Gases Program with regional networks and other global monitoring initiatives in order to attain a complete picture of the tropospheric chemical composition. Observations are being made by in-situ monitoring, measurements from commercial routine air-crafts (e.g. IAGOS), column observations, and from flask sampling networks. Quality control and coordination of measurements between participating stations are a primary emphasis. GAW reactive gases data in rapid delivery mode are used to evaluate operational atmospheric composition forecasts in the EU Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service. Oversight of the program is provided by GAW-WMO coordinated Reactive Gases Scientific Advisory Committee (RG-SAG)

    Computational Prototyping Tools and Techniques

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    Contains reports on five research projects.Industry Consortium (Mobil, Statoil, DNV Software, Shell, OTRC, Petrobras, NorskHydro, Exxon, Chevron, SAGA, NSWC)U.S. Navy - Office of Naval ResearchAnalog DevicesDefense Advanced Research Projects Agency Contract J-FBI-95-215Cadence Design SystemsHarris SemiconductorMAFET ConsortiumMotorola SemiconductorDefense Advanced Research Projects AgencyMultiuniversity Research InitiativeSemiconductor Research CorporationIBM Corporatio

    Globalization, educational targeting and stable inequalities : a comparative analysis of Argentina, Brazil and Chile

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    This article analyzes educational targeting in Argentina, Brazil and Chile from a sociological point of view. In essence, it presents the 'logic of induction' as an ideal type. This pedagogic discourse is the vehicle of an educational anti-poverty strategy that expects to induce clearly targeted groups to improve on their own. The analysis explores the influence of the global educational agenda, the empirical connection between this discourse and the mechanism of emulation as well as the territorialization of educational inequality. Emulation plays the main role inasmuch as the logic of induction eventually leads the target groups to compare their adverse situation with more privileged groups, what legitimizes the current structures of categorical inequality (Tilly 1998). Finally, a brief statistical summary reports that the trends of educational inequality have remained stable as far as urban- rural ratios (in Brazil and Chile) and regional disparities (in the three countries) are concerned

    Insect Pollinated Crops, Insect Pollinators and US Agriculture: Trend Analysis of Aggregate Data for the Period 1992‚Äď2009

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    In the US, the cultivated area (hectares) and production (tonnes) of crops that require or benefit from insect pollination (directly dependent crops: apples, almonds, blueberries, cucurbits, etc.) increased from 1992, the first year in this study, through 1999 and continued near those levels through 2009; aggregate yield (tonnes/hectare) remained unchanged. The value of directly dependent crops attributed to all insect pollination (2009 USD) decreased from 14.29billionin1996,thefirstyearforvaluedatainthisstudy,to14.29 billion in 1996, the first year for value data in this study, to 10.69 billion in 2001, but increased thereafter, reaching 15.12billionby2009.Thevaluesattributedtohoneybeesandnon‚ąíApispollinatorsfollowedsimilarpatterns,reaching15.12 billion by 2009. The values attributed to honey bees and non-Apis pollinators followed similar patterns, reaching 11.68 billion and 3.44billion,respectively,by2009.Thecultivatedareaofcropsgrownfromseedsresultingfrominsectpollination(indirectlydependentcrops:legumehays,carrots,onions,etc.)wasstablefrom1992through1999,buthassincedeclined.Productionofthosecropsalsodeclined,albeitnotasrapidlyasthedeclineincultivatedarea;thisasymmetrywasduetoincreasesinaggregateyield.Thevalueofindirectlydependentcropsattributedtoinsectpollinationdeclinedfrom3.44 billion, respectively, by 2009. The cultivated area of crops grown from seeds resulting from insect pollination (indirectly dependent crops: legume hays, carrots, onions, etc.) was stable from 1992 through 1999, but has since declined. Production of those crops also declined, albeit not as rapidly as the decline in cultivated area; this asymmetry was due to increases in aggregate yield. The value of indirectly dependent crops attributed to insect pollination declined from 15.45 billion in 1996 to 12.00billionin2004,buthassincetrendedupward.Thevalueofindirectlydependentcropsattributedtohoneybeesandnon‚ąíApispollinators,exclusiveofalfalfaleafcutterbees,hasdeclinedsince1996to12.00 billion in 2004, but has since trended upward. The value of indirectly dependent crops attributed to honey bees and non-Apis pollinators, exclusive of alfalfa leafcutter bees, has declined since 1996 to 5.39 billion and 1.15billion,respectivelyin2009.Thevalueofalfalfahayattributedtoalfalfaleafcutterbeesrangedbetween1.15 billion, respectively in 2009. The value of alfalfa hay attributed to alfalfa leafcutter bees ranged between 4.99 and $7.04 billion. Trend analysis demonstrates that US producers have a continued and significant need for insect pollinators and that a diminution in managed or wild pollinator populations could seriously threaten the continued production of insect pollinated crops and crops grown from seeds resulting from insect pollination

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE ‚Äď on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation

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    One of the ways in which legal services are financed, and indeed shaped, is through private insurance arrangement. Two contrasting types of legal expenses insurance contracts (LEI) seem to dominate in Europe: before the event (BTE) and after the event (ATE) legal expenses insurance. Notwithstanding institutional differences between different legal systems, BTE and ATE insurance arrangements may be instrumental if government policy is geared towards strengthening a market-oriented system of financing access to justice for individuals and business. At the same time, emphasizing the role of a private industry as a keeper of the gates to justice raises issues of accountability and transparency, not readily reconcilable with demands of competition. Moreover, multiple actors (clients, lawyers, courts, insurers) are involved, causing behavioural dynamics which are not easily predicted or influenced. Against this background, this paper looks into BTE and ATE arrangements by analysing the particularities of BTE and ATE arrangements currently available in some European jurisdictions and by painting a picture of their respective markets and legal contexts. This allows for some reflection on the performance of BTE and ATE providers as both financiers and keepers. Two issues emerge from the analysis that are worthy of some further reflection. Firstly, there is the problematic long-term sustainability of some ATE products. Secondly, the challenges faced by policymakers that would like to nudge consumers into voluntarily taking out BTE LEI

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