3,178 research outputs found

    Energy and centrality dependence of particle multiplicity in heavy ion collisions from sNN\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}} = 20 to 2760 GeV

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    The centrality dependence of midrapidity charged-particle multiplicities at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV from CMS are compared to PHOBOS data at 200 and 19.6 GeV. The results are first fitted with a two-component model which parameterizes the separate contributions of nucleon participants and nucleon-nucleon collisions. A more direct comparison involves ratios of multiplicity densities per participant pair between the different collision energies. The results support and extend earlier indications that the influences of centrality and collision energy on midrapidity charged-particle multiplicities are to a large degree independent.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures, 1 table, Replaced with published version, v3 has fixed typ

    Centrality Dependence of Two-Particle Correlations in Heavy Ion Collisions

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    Data from the PHOBOS detector have been used to study two-particle correlations over a broad range of pseudorapidity. A simple cluster model parameterization has been applied to inclusive two-particle correlations over a range of centrality for both Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200GeV. Analysis of the data for Au+Au has recently been extended to more peripheral collisions showing that the previously-observed rise in cluster size with decreasing system size eventually reaches a maximum value. Model studies have been used to quantify the significant effect of limited detector acceptance on the extracted cluster parameters. In the case of Au+Au, correlations between a trigger particle with pT>2.5GeV and inclusive associated particles have also been studied. These reveal the presence of a `ridge' at small relative azimuthal angle which extends with roughly constant amplitude out to the largest relative pseudorapidity studied. The large phase-space coverage of the PHOBOS detector has enabled a quantitative understanding of the so-called `ZYAM' parameter used in the subtraction of the contribution of elliptic flow to these triggered correlations.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures - To appear in the conference proceedings for Quark Matter 2009, March 30 - April 4, Knoxville, Tennessee (version 2: No changes from version 1 other than removing line numbers, version 3: Added full author list and reformatted slightly to keep same number of pages

    Particle Production and Collectivity in High Multiplicity pp and pPb at the LHC

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    Recent unexpected evidence for collectivity in high multiplicity pp and pPb collisions at LHC energies has challenged the notion that such small systems do not exhibit any of the properties that have been used to study the quark gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions. An overview of recent results concerning particle production and collectivity in such collisions using the CMS detector at the LHC is presented

    Nucleon-Gold Collisions at 200 AGeV Using Tagged d+Au Interactions in PHOBOS

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    Forward calorimetry in the PHOBOS detector has been used to study charged hadron production in d+Au, p+Au and n+Au collisions at sqrt(s_nn) = 200 GeV. The forward proton calorimeter detectors are described and a procedure for determining collision centrality with these detectors is detailed. The deposition of energy by deuteron spectator nucleons in the forward calorimeters is used to identify p+Au and n+Au collisions in the data. A weighted combination of the yield of p+Au and n+Au is constructed to build a reference for Au+Au collisions that better matches the isospin composition of the gold nucleus. The p_T and centrality dependence of the yield of this improved reference system is found to match that of d+Au. The shape of the charged particle transverse momentum distribution is observed to extrapolate smoothly from pbar+p to central d+Au as a function of the charged particle pseudorapidity density. The asymmetry of positively- and negatively-charged hadron production in p+Au is compared to that of n+Au. No significant asymmetry is observed at mid-rapidity. These studies augment recent results from experiments at the LHC and RHIC facilities to give a more complete description of particle production in p+A and d+A collisions, essential for the understanding the medium produced in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions.Comment: 17 pages, 18 figure

    Evidence of Final-State Suppression of High-p_T Hadrons in Au + Au Collisions Using d + Au Measurements at RHIC

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    Transverse momentum spectra of charged hadrons with pT<{p_{T} <} 6 GeV/c have been measured near mid-rapidity (0.2 <η<< \eta < 1.4) by the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC in Au + Au and d + Au collisions at sNN=200GeV{\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}} = \rm {200 GeV}}. The spectra for different collision centralities are compared to p+pˉ{p + \bar{p}} collisions at the same energy. The resulting nuclear modification factor for central Au + Au collisions shows evidence of strong suppression of charged hadrons in the high-pTp_{T} region (>2{>2} GeV/c). In contrast, the d + Au nuclear modification factor exhibits no suppression of the high-pTp_{T} yields. These measurements suggest a large energy loss of the high-pTp_{T} particles in the highly interacting medium created in the central Au + Au collisions. The lack of suppression in d + Au collisions suggests that it is unlikely that initial state effects can explain the suppression in the central Au + Au collisions.Comment: 3 pages, 4 figures, International Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics EPS (July 17th-23rd 2003) in Aachen, German

    Centrality dependence of charged antiparticle to particle ratios near mid-rapidity in d+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

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    The ratios of the yields of charged antiparticles to particles have been obtained for pions, kaons, and protons near mid-rapidity for d+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV as a function of centrality. The reported values represent the ratio of the yields averaged over the rapidity range of 0.1<y_pi<1.3 and 0<y_(K,p)<0.8, where positive rapidity is in the deuteron direction, and for transverse momenta 0.1<p_(T)^(pi,K)<1.0 GeV/c and 0.3<p_(T)^(p)<1.0 GeV/c. Within the uncertainties, a lack of centrality dependence is observed in all three ratios. The data are compared to results from other systems and model calculations.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, submitted to PR

    Non-flow correlations and elliptic flow fluctuations in gold-gold collisions at sqrt(s_NN)= 200 GeV

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    This paper presents results on event-by-event elliptic flow fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200Gev, where the contribution from non-flow correlations has been subtracted. An analysis method is introduced to measure non-flow correlations, relying on the assumption that non-flow correlations are most prominent at short ranges (Delta eta < 2). Assuming that non-flow correlations are of the order that is observed in p+p collisions for long range correlations (Delta eta > 2), relative elliptic flow fluctuations of approximately 30-40% are observed. These results are consistent with predictions based on spatial fluctuations of the participating nucleons in the initial nuclear overlap region. It is found that the long range non-flow correlations in Au+Au collisions would have to be more than an order of magnitude stronger compared to the p+p data to lead to the observed azimuthal anisotropy fluctuations with no intrinsic elliptic flow fluctuations.Comment: 9 pages, 7 figures, Published in Phys. Rev.

    Charged-Particle Pseudorapidity Distributions in Au+Au Collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=62.4 GeV

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    The charged-particle pseudorapidity density for Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=62.4 GeV has been measured over a wide range of impact parameters and compared to results obtained at other energies. As a function of collision energy, the pseudorapidity distribution grows systematically both in height and width. The mid-rapidity density is found to grow approximately logarithmically between AGS energies and the top RHIC energy. As a function of centrality, there is an approximate factorization of the centrality dependence of the mid-rapidity yields and the overall multiplicity scale. The new results at sqrt(s_NN)=62.4 GeV confirm the previously observed phenomenon of ``extended longitudinal scaling'' in the pseudorapidity distributions when viewed in the rest frame of one of the colliding nuclei. It is also found that the evolution of the shape of the distribution with centrality is energy independent, when viewed in this reference frame. As a function of centrality, the total charged particle multiplicity scales linearly with the number of participant pairs as it was observed at other energies.Comment: 6 pages, 7 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev. C - Rapid Communication

    Event-by-event fluctuations of azimuthal particle anisotropy in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV

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    This paper presents the first measurement of event-by-event fluctuations of the elliptic flow parameter v_2 in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200GeV as a function of collision centrality. The relative non-statistical fluctuations of the v_2 parameter are found to be approximately 40%. The results, including contributions from event-by-event elliptic flow fluctuations and from azimuthal correlations that are unrelated to the reaction plane (non-flow correlations), establish an upper limit on the magnitude of underlying elliptic flow fluctuations. This limit is consistent with predictions based on spatial fluctuations of the participating nucleons in the initial nuclear overlap region. These results provide important constraints on models of the initial state and hydrodynamic evolution of relativistic heavy ion collisions.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures, Published in Phys. Rev. Lett
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