1,895 research outputs found

    Metabolomics of ApcMin/+ mice genetically susceptible to intestinal cancer

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    BACKGROUND: To determine how diets high in saturated fat could increase polyp formation in the mouse model of intestinal neoplasia, Apc( Min/+ ), we conducted large-scale metabolome analysis and association study of colon and small intestine polyp formation from plasma and liver samples of Apc( Min/+ ) vs. wild-type littermates, kept on low vs. high-fat diet. Label-free mass spectrometry was used to quantify untargeted plasma and acyl-CoA liver compounds, respectively. Differences in contrasts of interest were analyzed statistically by unsupervised and supervised modeling approaches, namely Principal Component Analysis and Linear Model of analysis of variance. Correlation between plasma metabolite concentrations and polyp numbers was analyzed with a zero-inflated Generalized Linear Model. RESULTS: Plasma metabolome in parallel to promotion of tumor development comprises a clearly distinct profile in Apc( Min/+ ) mice vs. wild type littermates, which is further altered by high-fat diet. Further, functional metabolomics pathway and network analyses in Apc( Min/+ ) mice on high-fat diet revealed associations between polyp formation and plasma metabolic compounds including those involved in amino-acids metabolism as well as nicotinamide and hippuric acid metabolic pathways. Finally, we also show changes in liver acyl-CoA profiles, which may result from a combination of Apc( Min/+ )-mediated tumor progression and high fat diet. The biological significance of these findings is discussed in the context of intestinal cancer progression. CONCLUSIONS: These studies show that high-throughput metabolomics combined with appropriate statistical modeling and large scale functional approaches can be used to monitor and infer changes and interactions in the metabolome and genome of the host under controlled experimental conditions. Further these studies demonstrate the impact of diet on metabolic pathways and its relation to intestinal cancer progression. Based on our results, metabolic signatures and metabolic pathways of polyposis and intestinal carcinoma have been identified, which may serve as useful targets for the development of therapeutic interventions

    Metabolomics of ApcMin/+\u3c/sup\u3e Mice Genetically Susceptible to Intestinal Cancer

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    Background: To determine how diets high in saturated fat could increase polyp formation in the mouse model of intestinal neoplasia, ApcMin/+, we conducted large-scale metabolome analysis and association study of colon and small intestine polyp formation from plasma and liver samples of ApcMin/+ vs. wild-type littermates, kept on low vs. high-fat diet. Label-free mass spectrometry was used to quantify untargeted plasma and acyl-CoA liver compounds, respectively. Differences in contrasts of interest were analyzed statistically by unsupervised and supervised modeling approaches, namely Principal Component Analysis and Linear Model of analysis of variance. Correlation between plasma metabolite concentrations and polyp numbers was analyzed with a zero-inflated Generalized Linear Model.Results: Plasma metabolome in parallel to promotion of tumor development comprises a clearly distinct profile in ApcMin/+ mice vs. wild type littermates, which is further altered by high-fat diet. Further, functional metabolomics pathway and network analyses in ApcMin/+ mice on high-fat diet revealed associations between polyp formation and plasma metabolic compounds including those involved in amino-acids metabolism as well as nicotinamide and hippuric acid metabolic pathways. Finally, we also show changes in liver acyl-CoA profiles, which may result from a combination of ApcMin/+-mediated tumor progression and high fat diet. The biological significance of these findings is discussed in the context of intestinal cancer progression.Conclusions: These studies show that high-throughput metabolomics combined with appropriate statistical modeling and large scale functional approaches can be used to monitor and infer changes and interactions in the metabolome and genome of the host under controlled experimental conditions. Further these studies demonstrate the impact of diet on metabolic pathways and its relation to intestinal cancer progression. Based on our results, metabolic signatures and metabolic pathways of polyposis and intestinal carcinoma have been identified, which may serve as useful targets for the development of therapeutic interventions. © 2014 Dazard et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd

    The Impact of Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus on Sexual Dysfunction

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    Background: Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic inflammatory condition that is known to arise on the vulva. Many women with LS report vulvar pain, often affecting a patient's quality of life. In this study, the sexual function of LS patients, with and without pain, was compared to control populations. Materials and Methods: A case-control study to examine the relationship between LS and sexual dysfunction was conducted. A total of 335 women presenting to the gynecology clinic were included in the study: 197 women with biopsy confirmed LS were compared to two control groups (95 asymptomatic women were ?healthy? controls and 43 women had vulvovaginal candidiasis) on self-reported current health complaints, medical and surgical history and current symptoms such as pain and itching, type and frequency of sexual activity, and satisfaction with sexual activity. Results: Women with LS reported less frequent sexual activity than healthy controls (p=0.007) and Candida controls (p=0.04). Currently sexually active women with LS were significantly less likely to report vaginal intercourse (71.6%) than healthy controls (89.0%, p=0.003) or Candida controls (100%, p=0.0003), even though similar proportions of all three groups reported that vaginal intercourse was important. Satisfaction towards the quality of current sexual activity was significantly lower among women with LS compared with both the healthy and Candida control groups. 23.7% of women with LS reported that sexual activity was rarely or never satisfactory as compared with 0% of healthy controls (p<0.0001) and 6.5% of Candida controls (p=0.03). Conclusion: Women with LS have less frequent sexual activity and less satisfying sexual activity when compared with controls.Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/140128/1/jwh.2014.4805.pd

    Diversity among Equals: Educational Opportunity and the State of Affirmative Admissions in New England

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    This report reviews the practice of Affirmative Admissions as a strategy for achieving diversity within New England colleges and universities. It shows how educational leaders perceive Affirmative Admissions, the nature of regional Affirmative Admissions policies, and the numbers of student affected by current enrollment strategies. This report is part of a larger series on educational access and opportunity in New England. Research was organized into five components: (1) analysis of pertinent legal issues related to postsecondary access and equity; (2) interviews with postsecondary campus and state leaders (n=104); (3) interviews with K-12 leaders and educators at state, district, and school levels (n=45); (4) a survey of 221 postsecondary education institutions in New England; and (5) econometric analyses of student data. The focus was on groups of institutions, 18 groups clustered by admissions policies and restrictions. The most compelling conclusion is that there is no significant evidence that colleges have reduced standards to admit greater numbers of minority students. By increasing educational access to a broader segment of the population, the regions higher education institutions have taken crucial steps toward assuring the vitality and vibrancy of New Englands future economy and civic life. The study also indicates that the pool of qualified minority students is much too small, highlighting the need to improve the preparation of minority students. Three appendixes contain details about survey methodology, participating institutions, and regression coefficients. Prepared by the Center for Education Policy (CEP) and Massachusetts Institute for Social and Economic Research (MISER), University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Sponsored by the Nellie Mae Education Foundation

    Reduced bone loss is associated with reduced mortality risk in subjects exposed to nitrogen bisphosphonates: A mediation analysis

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    Bisphosphonates, potent anti-resorptive agents, have been found to be associated with mortality reduction. Accelerated bone loss is, in itself, an independent predictor of mortality risk, but the relationship between bisphosphonates, bone loss, and mortality is unknown. This study aimed to determine whether the association between bisphosphonates and mortality is mediated by a reduction in the rate of bone loss. Participants from the population‐based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study were followed prospectively between1996 and 2011. Comorbidities and lifestyle factors were collected at baseline and bone mineral density (BMD) at baseline and at years 3 (for those aged 40 to 60 years), 5, and 10. Rate of bone loss was calculated using linear regression. Information on medication use was obtained yearly. Bisphosphonate users grouped into nitrogen bisphosphonates (nBP; alendronate or risedronate) and etidronate and non‐users (NoRx) were matched by propensity score, including all baseline factors as well as time of treatment. Cox’s proportional hazards models, unadjusted and adjusted for annual rate of bone loss, were used to determine the association between nBP and etidronate versus NoRx. For the treatment groups with significant mortality risk reduction, the percent of mortality reduction mediated by a reduction in the rate of bone loss was estimated using a causal mediation analysis. There were 271 pairs of nBP and matched NoRx and 327 pairs of etidronate and matched NoRx. nBP but not etidronate use was associated with significant mortality risk reduction (hazard ratios [HR]=0.61 [95% confidenceinterval0.39–0.96]and1.35[95%CI0.86–2.11] for nBP and etidronate, respectively). Rapid bone loss was associated with more than2‐fold increased mortality risk compared with no loss. Mediation analysis indicated that39% (95%CI7%–84%) of the nBP association with mortality was related to a reduction in the rate of bone loss. This finding provides an insight into the mechanism of the relationship between nBP and survival benefit in osteoporotic patients

    A Risk Assessment Tool for Predicting Fragility Fractures and Mortality in the Elderly

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    Existing fracture risk assessment tools are not designed to predict fracture-associated consequences, possibly contributing to the current undermanagement of fragility fractures worldwide. We aimed to develop a risk assessment tool for predicting the conceptual risk of fragility fractures and its consequences. The study involved 8965 people aged >= 60 years from the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study and the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. Incident fracture was identified from X-ray reports and questionnaires, and death was ascertained though contact with a family member or obituary review. We used a multistate model to quantify the effects of the predictors on the transition risks to an initial and subsequent incident fracture and mortality, accounting for their complex interrelationships, confounding effects, and death as a competing risk. There were 2364 initial fractures, 755 subsequent fractures, and 3300 deaths during a median follow-up of 13 years (interquartile range [IQR] 7-15). The prediction model included sex, age, bone mineral density, history of falls within 12 previous months, prior fracture after the age of 50 years, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, chronic pulmonary diseases, hypertension, and cancer. The model accurately predicted fragility fractures up to 11 years of follow-up and post-fracture mortality up to 9 years, ranging from 7 years after hip fractures to 15 years after non-hip fractures. For example, a 70-year-old woman with aT-score of -1.5 and without other risk factors would have 10% chance of sustaining a fracture and an 8% risk of dying in 5 years. However, after an initial fracture, her risk of sustaining another fracture or dying doubles to 33%, ranging from 26% after a distal to 42% post hip fracture. A robust statistical technique was used to develop a prediction model for individualization of progression to fracture and its consequences, facilitating informed decision making about risk and thus treatment for individuals with different risk profiles. (c) 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research

    Influence of an alkalizing supplement on markers of endurance performance using a double-blind placebo-controlled design

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Previous research has shown that ingestion of substances that enhance the body's hydrogen ion buffering capacity during high intensity exercise can improve exercise performance. The present study aimed to determine whether the chronic ingestion of an alkalizing supplement, which purports to enhance both intracellular and extracellular buffering capacity, could impact cardiorespiratory and performance markers in trained Nordic skiers.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Twenty-four skiers (12 men, 12 women), matched for upper body power (UBP), were split into treatment and placebo groups. The treatment group ingested Alka-Myte<sup>®</sup>-based alkalizing tablets (1 tablet/22.7 kg body mass/day) over seven successive days while the placebo group consumed placebo tablets (i.e., no Alka-Myte<sup>®</sup>) at the same dosage. Prior to tablet ingestion (i.e., pre-testing), both groups completed a constant power UBP test, three successive 10-sec UBP tests, and then a 60-sec UBP test. Next, skiers completed the 7-day ingestion of their assigned tablets followed immediately by a repeat of the same UBP tests (i.e., post-testing). Neither the skiers nor the researchers were aware of which tablets were being consumed by either group until after all testing was complete. Dependent measures for analysis included heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO<sub>2</sub>), minute ventilation (V<sub>E</sub>), blood lactate (LA), as well as 10-sec (W10, W) and 60-sec (W60, W) UBP. All data were evaluated using a two-factor multivariate repeated measures ANOVA with planned contrasts for post-hoc testing (alpha = 0.05).</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Post-testing cardiorespiratory (HR, VO<sub>2</sub>, V<sub>E</sub>) and LA measures for the treatment group tended to be significantly lower when measured for both constant power and UBP60 tests, while measures of both 10-sec (W10: 229 to 243 W) and 60-sec UBP (W60: 190 to 198 W) were significantly higher (<it>P </it>< 0.05). In contrast, there were no significant changes for the placebo group (P > 0.05).</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Following the 7-day loading phase of Alka-Myte<sup>®</sup>-based alkalizing tablets, trained Nordic skiers experienced significantly lower cardiorespiratory stress, lower blood lactate responses, and higher UBP measures. Thus, the use of this supplement appeared to impart an ergogenic benefit to the skiers that may be similar to the effects expected from consuming well-studied extracellular buffering agents such as sodium bicarbonate.</p

    Acute vasoreactivity testing in pediatric idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension:an international survey on current practice

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    The aim of this study was to determine practice patterns and inter-institutional variability in how acute vasoreactivity testing (AVT) is performed and interpreted in pediatrics throughout the world. A survey was offered to physicians affiliated with the Pediatric & Congenital Heart Disease Taskforce of the Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute (PVRI), the Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension Network (PPHNET), or the Spanish Registry for Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension (REHIPED), from February to December 2016. The survey requested data about the site-specific protocol for AVT and subsequent management of pediatric patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) or heritable PAH (HPAH). Twenty-eight centers from 13 countries answered the survey. AVT is performed in most centers using inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). Sitbon criteria was used in 39% of the centers, Barst criteria in 43%, and other criteria in 18%. First-line therapy for positive AVT responders in functional class (FC) I/II was calcium channel blocker (CCB) in 89%, but only in 68% as monotherapy. Most centers (71%) re-evaluated AVT-positive patients hemodynamics after 6-12 months; 29% of centers re-evaluated based only on clinical criteria. Most centers (64%) considered a good response as remaining in FC I or II, with near normalization of pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance, but a stable FC I/II alone was sufficient criteria in 25% of sites. Protocols and diagnostic criteria for AVT, and therapeutic approaches during follow-up, were highly variable across the world. Reported clinical practice is not fully congruent with current guidelines, suggesting the need for additional studies that better define the prognostic value of AVT for pediatric IPAH patients
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