4,908 research outputs found

    Planning for the mobile library: a strategy for managing innovation and transformation at the University of Glasgow Library

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    Modern mobile devices have powerful features that are transforming access to information. Lippincott argues that as mobile devices such as smartphones become ‘key information devices’ for our users, libraries will want to have a significant presence in offering content and services that are suitable for this medium. This article outlines the process of development and implementation of a mobile strategy at the University of Glasgow Library. What began as an investigation into a mobile interface to the library catalogue evolved into a comprehensive strategic review of how we deliver services now and in the future in this rapidly changing mobile environment

    Laboratory simulations of astrophysical jets and solar coronal loops: new results

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    An experimental program underway at Caltech has produced plasmas where the shape is neither fixed by the vacuum chamber nor fixed by an external coil set, but instead is determined by self-organization. The plasma dynamics is highly reproducible and so can be studied in considerable detail even though the morphology of the plasma is both complex and time-dependent. A surprising result has been the observation that self-collimating MHD-driven plasma jets are ubiquitous and play a fundamental role in the self-organization. The jets can be considered lab-scale simulations of astrophysical jets and in addition are intimately related to solar coronal loops. The jets are driven by the combination of the axial component of the J×B force and the axial pressure gradient resulting from the non-uniform pinch force associated with the flared axial current density. Behavior is consistent with a model showing that collimation results from axial non-uniformity of the jet velocity. In particular, flow stagnation in the jet frame compresses frozen-in azimuthal magnetic flux, squeezes together toroidal magnetic field lines, thereby amplifying the embedded toroidal magnetic field, enhancing the pinch force, and hence causing collimation of the jet

    PPARα contributes to protection against metabolic and inflammatory derangements associated with acute kidney injury in experimental sepsis

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    Abstract Sepsis‐associated acute kidney injury (AKI) is a significant problem in critically ill children and adults resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Fundamental mechanisms contributing to sepsis‐associated AKI are poorly understood. Previous research has demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor α (PPARα) expression is associated with reduced organ system failure in sepsis. Using an experimental model of polymicrobial sepsis, we demonstrate that mice deficient in PPARα have worse kidney function, which is likely related to reduced fatty acid oxidation and increased inflammation. Ultrastructural evaluation with electron microscopy reveals that the proximal convoluted tubule is specifically injured in septic PPARα deficient mice. In this experimental group, serum metabolomic analysis reveals unanticipated metabolic derangements in tryptophan‐kynurenine‐NAD+ and pantothenate pathways. We also show that a subgroup of children with sepsis whose genome‐wide expression profiles are characterized by repression of the PPARα signaling pathway has increased incidence of severe AKI. These findings point toward interesting associations between sepsis‐associated AKI and PPARα‐driven fatty acid metabolism that merit further investigation

    The Effect of Physiological Cyclic Stretch on the Cell Morphology, Cell Orientation and Protein Expression of Endothelial Cells

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    In vivo, endothelial cells are constantly exposed to pulsatile shear and tensile stresses. The main aim of this study was to design and build a physiological simulator, which reproduced homogenous strain proïŹles of the tensile strain experienced in vivo, and to investigate the effect of this cyclic tensile strain on the cell morphology, cell orientation and protein expression of endothelial cells. The biological response of human umbilical vein endothelial cells to a uniaxial cyclic stretch, in this newly developed simulator, was examined experimentally using immunohistostaining and confocal imaging and it was found that the cells elongated and oriented at 58.9± 4.5. This value was compared to a mathematical model where it was revealed that endothelial cells would orient at an angle of 60. This model also revealed that endothelial cells have an axial strain threshold value of 1.8% when exposed to a 10% cyclic strain at 1 Hz for 3 h. Cells cultured under conditions of cyclic strain showed increased ICAM-1 immunostaining when compared to static cells whereas, a marked decrease in the levels of VCAM-1 receptor staining was also observed. Haemodynamic stresses can modulate the endothelial cell adhesion response in vivo thus, taken together; this data validates the bioreactor as replicating the physiological environment

    Post-Foucauldian governmentality: what does it offer critical social policy analysis?

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    This article considers the theoretical perspective of post-Foucauldian governmentality, especially the insights and challenges it poses for applied researchers within the critical social policy tradition. The article firstly examines the analytical strengths of this approach to understanding power and rule in contemporary society, before moving on to consider its limitations for social policy. It concludes by arguing that these insights can be retained, and some of the weaknesses overcome, by adopting a ‘realist governmentality’ approach (Stenson 2005, 2008). This advocates combining traditional discursive analysis with more ethnographic methods in order to render visible the concrete activity of governing, and unravel the messiness, complexity and unintended consequences involved in the struggles around subjectivity

    The Pediatric Sepsis Biomarker Risk Model (PERSEVERE) Biomarkers Predict Clinical Deterioration and Mortality in Immunocompromised Children Evaluated for Infection

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    Pediatric sepsis and bacterial infection cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, with immunocompromised patients being at particularly high risk of rapid deterioration and death. This study evaluated if PERSEVERE, PERSEVERE-II, or the PERSEVERE biomarkers, can reliably estimate the risk of clinical deterioration and 28-day mortality among immunocompromised pediatric patients. This is a single-center prospective cohort study conducted from July 2016 through September 2017 incorporating 400 episodes of suspected bacterial infection from the inpatient units at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, a large, tertiary care children's hospital. The primary analysis assessed clinical deterioration within 72 hours of evaluation for infection. Secondarily, we assessed 28-day mortality. Clinical deterioration was seen in 15% of subjects. Twenty-eight day mortality was 5%, but significantly higher among critically ill patients. Neither PERSEVERE nor PERSEVERE-II performed well to predict clinical deterioration or 28-day mortality, thus we derived new stratification models using the PERSEVERE biomarkers with both high sensitivity and negative predictive value. In conclusion, we evaluated previously validated biomarker risk models in a novel population of largely non-critically ill immunocompromised pediatric patients, and attempted to stratify patients based on a new outcome metric, clinical deterioration. The new highly predictive models indicate common physiologic pathways to clinical deterioration or death from bacterial infection

    The Scalar Meson f0(980) in Heavy-Meson Decays

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    A phenomenological analysis of the scalar meson f0(980) is performed that relies on the quasi-two body decays D and Ds -> f0(980)P, with P=pi, K. The two-body branching ratios are deduced from experimental data on D or Ds -> pi pi pi, K Kbar pi and from the f0(980) -> pi+ pi- and f0(980) -> K+ K- branching fractions. Within a covariant quark model, the scalar form factors F0(q2) for the transitions D and Ds -> f0(980) are computed. The weak D decay amplitudes, in which these form factors enter, are obtained in the naive factorization approach assuming a quark-antiquark state for the scalar and pseudoscalar mesons. They allow to extract information on the f0(980) wave function in terms of u-ubar, d-dbar and s-sbar pairs as well as on the mixing angle between the strange and non-strange components. The weak transition form factors are modeled by the one-loop triangular diagram using two different relativistic approaches: covariant light-front dynamics and dispersion relations. We use the information found on the f0(980) structure to evaluate the scalar and vector form factors in the transitions D and Ds -> f0(980), as well as to make predictions for B and Bs -> f0(980), for the entire kinematically allowed momentum range of q2.Comment: 45 pages, 9 figures and 9 tables. The use of dispersion relations to calculate the weak transition form factors is better justified. A more extensive discussion on the strange and non-strange flavor content mixing is introduced. Results unchanged. Version to appear in Phys. Rev.

    Search for Higher Flavor Multiplets in Partial Wave Analyses

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    The possible existence of higher multi-quark flavor multiplets of baryons is investigated. We argue that the S-matrix should have poles with any quantum numbers, including those which are exotic. This argument provides a novel justification for the existence of hadrons with arbitrary exotic structure. Though it does not constitute a proof, there are still no theoretical arguments against exotics. We then consider KN and piN scattering. Conventional and modified partial-wave analyses provide several sets of candidates for correlated pairs (Theta1, Delta), each of which could label a related 27-plet. Properties of the pairs (masses, mass orderings, spin-parity quantum numbers) do not quite correspond to the current theoretical expectations. Decay widths of the candidates are either wider or narrower than expected. Possible reasons for such disagreements are briefly discussed.Comment: 12 pages, 1 figure; v2: references corrected; v3: minor changes, to appear in Eur.Phys.J.