6,185 research outputs found

    X-rays from accretion shocks in T Tauri stars: The case of BP Tau

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    We present an XMM-Newton observation of the classical T Tauri star BP Tau. In the XMM-Newton RGS spectrum the O {\sc vii} triplet is clearly detected with a very weak forbidden line indicating high plasma densities and/or a high UV flux environment. At the same time concurrent UV data point to a small hot spot filling factor suggesting an accretion funnel shock as the site of the X-ray and UV emission. Together with the X-ray data on TW Hya these new observations suggest such funnels to be a general feature in classical T Tauri stars.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures, accepted by A&

    The Expansion in Width for Domain Walls in Nematic Liquid Crystals in External Magnetic Field

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    The improved expansion in width is applied to curved domain walls in uniaxial nematic liquid crystals in external magnetic field. In the present paper we concentrate on the case of equal elastic constants. We obtain approximate form of the director field up to second order in magnetic coherence length.Comment: 18 pages, Latex 2.09, no figure

    X-ray accretion signatures in the close CTTS binary V4046 Sgr

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    We present Chandra HETGS observations of the classical T Tauri star (CTTS) V4046 Sgr. The He-like triplets of O VII, Ne IX, and Si XIII are clearly detected. Similar to the CTTS TW Hya and BP Tau, the forbidden lines of O VII and Ne IX are weak compared to the intercombination line, indicating high plasma densities in the X-ray emitting regions. The Si XIII triplet, however, is within the low-density limit, in agreement with the predictions of the accretion funnel infall model with an additional stellar corona. V4046 Sgr is the first close binary exhibiting these features. Together with previous high-resolution X-ray data on TW Hya and BP Tau, and in contrast to T Tau, now three out of four CTTS show evidence of accretion funnels.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figure

    The Multiple Young Stellar Objects of HBC 515: An X-ray and Millimeter-wave Imaging Study in (Pre-main Sequence) Diversity

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    We present Chandra X-ray Observatory and Submillimeter Array (SMA) imaging of HBC 515, a system consisting of multiple young stellar objects (YSOs). The five members of HBC 515 represent a remarkably diverse array of YSOs, ranging from the low-mass Class I/II protostar HBC 515B, through Class II and transition disk objects (HBC 515D and C, respectively), to the "diskless", intermediate- mass, pre-main sequence binary HBC 515A. Our Chandra/ACIS imaging establishes that all five components are X-ray sources, with HBC 515A - a subarcsecond-separation binary that is partially resolved by Chandra - being the dominant X-ray source. We detect an X-ray flare associated with HBC 515B. In the SMA imaging, HBC 515B is detected as a strong 1.3 mm continuum emission source; a second, weaker mm continuum source is coincident with the position of the transition disk object HBC 515C. These results strongly support the protostellar nature of HBC 515B, and firmly establish HBC 515A as a member of the rare class of relatively massive, X-ray luminous "weak-lined T Tauri stars" that are binaries and have shed their disks at very early stages of pre-MS evolution. The coexistence of two such disparate objects within a single, presumably coeval multiple YSO system highlights the influence of pre- MS star mass, binarity, and X-ray luminosity in regulating the lifetimes of circumstellar, planet-forming disks and the timescales of star-disk interactions.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&A; 11 pages, 5 figure

    Live imaging of whole mouse embryos during gastrulation : migration analyses of epiblast and mesodermal cells

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    During gastrulation in the mouse embryo, dynamic cell movements including epiblast invagination and mesodermal layer expansion lead to the establishment of the three-layered body plan. The precise details of these movements, however, are sometimes elusive, because of the limitations in live imaging. To overcome this problem, we developed techniques to enable observation of living mouse embryos with digital scanned light sheet microscope (DSLM). The achieved deep and high time-resolution images of GFP-expressing nuclei and following 3D tracking analysis revealed the following findings: (i) Interkinetic nuclear migration (INM) occurs in the epiblast at embryonic day (E)6 and 6.5. (ii) INM-like migration occurs in the E5.5 embryo, when the epiblast is a monolayer and not yet pseudostratified. (iii) Primary driving force for INM at E6.5 is not pressure from neighboring nuclei. (iv) Mesodermal cells migrate not as a sheet but as individual cells without coordination

    Director configuration of planar solitons in nematic liquid crystals

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    The director configuration of disclination lines in nematic liquid crystals in the presence of an external magnetic field is evaluated. Our method is a combination of a polynomial expansion for the director and of further analytical approximations which are tested against a numerical shooting method. The results are particularly simple when the elastic constants are equal, but we discuss the general case of elastic anisotropy. The director field is continuous everywhere apart from a straight line segment whose length depends on the value of the magnetic field. This indicates the possibility of an elongated defect core for disclination lines in nematics due to an external magnetic field.Comment: 12 pages, Revtex, 8 postscript figure

    Molecules in the Circumstellar Disk Orbiting BP Piscium

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    BP Psc is a puzzling late-type, emission-line field star with large infrared excess. The star is encircled and enshrouded by a nearly edge-on, dust circumstellar disk, and displays an extensive jet system similar to those associated with pre-main sequence (pre-MS) stars. We conducted a mm-wave molecular line survey of BP Psc with the 30 m telescope of the Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique (IRAM). We detected lines of 12CO and 13CO and, possibly, very weak emission from HCO+ and CN; HCN, H2CO, and SiO are not detected. The CO line profiles of BP Psc are well fit by a model invoking a disk in Keplerian rotation. The mimumum disk gas mass, inferred from the 12CO line intensity and 13CO/12CO line ratio, is ~0.1 Jupiter masses. The weakness of HCO+ and CN (relative to 13CO) stands in sharp contrast to the strong HCO+ and CN emission that characterizes most low-mass, pre-main sequence stars that have been the subjects of molecular emission-line surveys, and is suggestive of a very low level of X-ray-induced molecular ionization within the BP Psc disk. These results lend some support to the notion that BP Psc is an evolved star whose circumstellar disk has its origins in a catastrophic interaction with a close companion.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures; to appear in Astronomy & Astrophysic

    The ultracool dwarf DENIS-P J104814.7-395606. Chromospheres and coronae at the low-mass end of the main-sequence

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    We have obtained an XMM-Newton observation and a broad-band spectrum from the ultraviolet to the near infrared with X-Shooter for one of the nearest M9 dwarfs, DENIS-P J1048-3956 (4pc). We integrate these data by a compilation of activity parameters for ultracool dwarfs from the literature with the aim to advance our understanding of these objects by comparing them to early-M type dwarf stars and the Sun. Our deep XMM-Newton observation has led to the first X-ray detection of DENIS-P J1048-3956 (log Lx = 25.1) as well as the first measurement of its V band brightness (V = 17.35mag). Flux-flux relations between X-ray and chromospheric activity indicators are here for the first time extended into the regime of the ultracool dwarfs. The approximate agreement of DENIS-P J1048-3956 and other ultracool dwarfs with flux-flux relations for early-M dwarfs suggests that the same heating mechanisms work in the atmospheres of ultracool dwarfs, albeit weaker as judged from their lower fluxes. The observed Balmer decrements of DENIS-P J1048-3956 are compatible with optically thick plasma in LTE at low, nearly photospheric temperature or optically thin LTE plasma at 20000K. Describing the decrements with CaseB recombination requires different emitting regions for Halpha and the higher Balmer lines. The high observed Halpha/Hbeta flux ratio is also poorly fitted by the optically thin models. We derive a similarly high value for the Halpha/Hbeta ratio of vB10 and LHS2065 and conclude that this may be a characteristic of ultracool dwarfs. We add DENIS-P J1048-3956 to the list of ultracool dwarfs detected in both the radio and the X-ray band. The Benz-Guedel relation between radio and X-ray luminosity of late-type stars is well-known to be violated by ultracool dwarfs. We speculate on the presence of two types of ultracool dwarfs with distinct radio and X-ray behavior.Comment: accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysic
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