312 research outputs found

    COVID-19 and thromboinflammation : is there a role for statins?

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    The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) showed increased morbidity and mortality rates and worse prognosis in individuals with underlying chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. There is also evidence of possible links among COVID-19, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Emerging evidence suggests a pro-inflammatory milieu and hypercoagulable state in patients with this infection. Despite anticoagulation, a large proportion of patients requiring intensive care may develop life-threatening thrombotic complications. Indeed, the levels of some markers of hemostatic activation, such as D-dimer, are commonly elevated in COVID-19, indicating potential risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism. In this review, we critically examine and discuss aspects of hypercoagulability and inflammation in COVID-19 and the possible benefits of statins in this scenario, with emphasis on their underlying molecular mechanisms. Moreover, we present recommendations on the use of antiviral drugs in combination with statins

    Ground/satellite observations and atmospheric modeling of dust storms originating in the high Puna-Altiplano deserts (South America): Implications for the interpretation of paleo-climatic archives

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    This study provides a detailed description of the sources, transport, dispersion, and deposition of two major dust events originating from the high鈥恆ltitude subtropical Puna鈥怉ltiplano Plateau (15?26掳S; 65?69掳W) in South America. A long and severe drought provided the right conditions for the onset of both events in July 2009 and 2010. Dust was transported SE and deposited over the Pampas region and was observed to continue to the Atlantic Ocean. Dust monitoring stations located downwind recorded both events, and samples were characterized through chemical and textural analysis. Through a combination of meteorological data and satellite observations (CALIPSO andMODIS detectors), we estimate the emission flux for the 2010 event. This estimate was used to constrain the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) transport model and simulate the dust event. Both satellite imagery and model results agree in the location and extension of the dust cloud. CALIPSO detected dust between ~6000 and ~8500 m a.s.l., which remained at this height during most of its trajectory. The dust cloud mixed with a strong convective system in the region, and the associated precipitation brought down significant amounts of dust to the ground. Dust particle size analysis for both events indicates that near the sources dust samples show median modes of 12.4?14.1 渭m, similar to modes observed 1300 km away. Chemical composition of sediments from potential dust sources shows distinct signatures within the Puna鈥怉ltiplano Plateau, the Puna sector being clearly different from the Altiplano area. In addition, both sources are markedly different from the Patagonian chemical fingerprint.These results have important implications to improve the interpretation of aleoenvironmental archives preserved on the Argentine loess, Antarctic ice cores, and Southern Ocean marine sediments.Fil: Gaiero, Diego Marcelo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas. Centro Cientifico Tecnol贸gico - CONICET - C贸rdoba. Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra; Argentina;Fil: Simonella, Lucio Esteban. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas. Centro Cientifico Tecnol贸gico - CONICET - C贸rdoba. Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra; Argentina;Fil: Gass贸, Santiago. Morgan State University; Estados Unidos de Am茅rica;Fil: Gili, Stefania. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas. Centro Cientifico Tecnol贸gico - CONICET - C贸rdoba. Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra; Argentina;Fil: Stein, A.F.. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Estados Unidos de Am茅rica;Fil: Sosa, P.. Universidad Nacional de Salta; Argentina;Fil: Becchio, Raul Alberto. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas. Centro Cient铆fico Tecnol贸gico - CONICET - Salta. Instituto de Investigaciones en Energ铆a no Convencional; Argentina;Fil: Arce, J.. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog铆a Agropecuaria. Centro Regional C贸rdoba. Estaci贸n Experimental Agropecuaria;Fil: Marelli, H.. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog铆a Agropecuaria. Centro Regional C贸rdoba. Estaci贸n Experimental Agropecuaria

    Taming Social Tags: Computational Linguistic Analysis of Tags for Images in Museums

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    This paper reports on the linguistic analysis of a tag set of nearly 50,000 tags collected as part of the steve.museum project. The tags describe images of objects in museum collections. We present our results on morphological, part of speech and semantic analysis. We demonstrate that deeper tag processing provides valuable information for organizing and categorizing social tags. This promises to improve access to museum objects by leveraging the characteristics of tags and the relationships between them rather than treating them as individual items. At a high level, the paper shows the value of using computational linguistic techniques in interdisciplinary projects with museums and libraries

    Papel da ferritina na toler芒ncia de arroz ao excesso de ferro

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    Defici锚ncia de ferro (Fe) ocorre freq眉entemente em plantas, uma vez que este mineral 茅 pouco dispon铆vel em condi莽玫es aer贸bicas. Plantas de arroz cultivadas sob alagamento, no entanto, est茫o sujeitas ao excesso de Fe, que pode ser extremamente t贸xico. Alguns cultivares de arroz s茫o resistentes a altas concentra莽玫es de ferro, mas os mecanismos fisiol贸gicos respons谩veis por essa resist锚ncia s茫o pouco conhecidos. A ferritina 茅 uma prote铆na de ampla distribui莽茫o e capaz de armazenar ferro, sendo considerada importante para a homeostase deste metal. Ac煤mulo de ferritina em condi莽玫es de alta disponibilidade de ferro j谩 foi descrito em algumas esp茅cies vegetais. Entretanto, o papel da ferritina no mecanismo de toler芒ncia de plantas de arroz ao excesso de ferro n茫o 茅 conhecido. Neste trabalho, expressamos ferritina de arroz em E. coli, produzimos um anticorpo policlonal anti-ferritina de arroz e este foi utilizado para avaliar o ac煤mulo de ferritina em dois cultivares de arroz (Oryza sativa) considerados suscet铆vel (BR-IRGA 409) e tolerante (EPAGRI 108) ao excesso de ferro. O anticorpo foi capaz de reconhecer ferritina purificada de sementes de ervilha, assim como ferritina de folhas de arroz. Aumentos nos n铆veis de mRNA e prote铆na foram observados nos dois cultivares sob excesso de ferro, com maior ac煤mulo da prote铆na no cultivar EPAGRI 108. Quando submetidas a excesso do elemento, plantas deste mesmo cultivar atingiram concentra莽玫es de Fe mais baixas do que plantas do cultivar BR-IRGA409, principalmente nas partes a茅reas. Sugere-se que o mecanismo de toler芒ncia ao excesso de ferro no cultivar EPAGRI 108 inclui limita莽茫o da transloca莽茫o de Fe e aumento do ac煤mulo de ferritina. Este 茅 o primeiro trabalho que mostra maior ac煤mulo da prote铆na ferritina em um cultivar de Oryza sativa tolerante ao excesso de Fe, fornecendo evid锚ncia de um poss铆vel papel desta prote铆na nos mecanismos de toler芒ncia a este metal.Plants ordinarily face iron (Fe) deficiency, since this mineral is poorly available in soils under aerobic conditions. Nonetheless, wetland and irrigated rice plants can be exposed to excess, highly toxic Fe. Ferritin is a ubiquitous Fe-storage protein, important for iron homeostasis. Increased ferritin accumulation resulting from higher Fe availability was shown in some plant species. However, the role of ferritin in tolerance mechanisms to Fe overload in rice is yet to be established. In this study, recombinant rice ferritin was expressed in Escherichia coli, producing an anti-rice ferritin polyclonal antibody which was used to evaluate ferritin accumulation in two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, either susceptible (BR-IRGA 409) or tolerant (EPAGRI 108) to Fe toxicity. Increased ferritin mRNA and protein levels resulting from excess Fe treatment were detected in both cultivars, with higher ferritin protein accumulation in EPAGRI 108 plants, which also reached lower shoot Fe concentrations when submitted to iron overload. The tolerance mechanism to excess Fe in EPAGRI 108 seems to include both restricted Fe translocation and increased ferritin accumulation. This is the first work that shows higher accumulation of the ferritin protein in an iron-excess tolerant Oryza sativa cultivar, providing evidence of a possible role of this protein in iron tolerance mechanisms

    Associations between neuropsychiatric and health status outcomes in individuals with probable mTBI

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    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common occurrence, and may impact distal outcomes in a subgroup of individuals. Improved characterization of health outcomes and identification of factors associated with poor outcomes is needed to better understand the impact of mTBI, particularly in those with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants in a data repository of the Injury and Traumatic Stress (INTRuST) Clinical Consortium (n鈥=鈥625) completed functional disability [FD] and health-related quality of life [HRQOL] questionnaires, and a subset completed a neuropsychological assessment. FD and HRQOL were compared among participants with probable mTBI (mTBI), probable mTBI with PTSD (mTBI/PTSD), and health comparison participants (HC). Associations between symptoms, neuropsychological performance, and health outcomes were examined in those with probable mTBI with and without PTSD (n鈥=鈥316). Individuals in the mTBI/PTSD group endorsed poorer health outcomes than those in the mTBI group, who endorsed poorer outcomes than those in the HC group. Individuals in either mTBI group performed worse than those in the HC on verbal learning and memory and psychomotor speed. Health outcomes were correlated with mental health and postconcussive symptoms, as well as neuropsychological variables. mTBI may adversely impact self-reported health, with the greatest effect observed in individuals with co-occurring mTBI/PTSD

    Age-dependent white matter disruptions after military traumatic brain injury: Multivariate analysis results from ENIGMA brain injury

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    Mild Traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a signature wound in military personnel, and repetitive mTBI has been linked to age-related neurogenerative disorders that affect white matter (WM) in the brain. However, findings of injury to specific WM tracts have been variable and inconsistent. This may be due to the heterogeneity of mechanisms, etiology, and comorbid disorders related to mTBI. Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is a data-driven approach that detects covarying patterns (components) within high-dimensional data. We applied NMF to diffusion imaging data from military Veterans with and without a self-reported TBI history. NMF identified 12 independent components derived from fractional anisotropy (FA) in a large dataset (n = 1,475) gathered through the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Military Brain Injury working group. Regressions were used to examine TBI- and mTBI-related associations in NMF-derived components while adjusting for age, sex, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and data acquisition site/scanner. We found significantly stronger age-dependent effects of lower FA in Veterans with TBI than Veterans without in four components (q \u3c 0.05), which are spatially unconstrained by traditionally defined WM tracts. One component, occupying the most peripheral location, exhibited significantly stronger age-dependent differences in Veterans with mTBI. We found NMF to be powerful and effective in detecting covarying patterns of FA associated with mTBI by applying standard parametric regression modeling. Our results highlight patterns of WM alteration that are differentially affected by TBI and mTBI in younger compared to older military Veterans

    Protein traffic is an intracellular target in alcohol toxicity

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    Eukaryotic cells comprise a set of organelles, surrounded by membranes with a unique composition, which is maintained by a complex synthesis and transport system. Cells also synthesize the proteins destined for secretion. Together, these processes are known as the secretory pathway or exocytosis. In addition, many molecules can be internalized by cells through a process called endocytosis. Chronic and acute alcohol (ethanol) exposure alters the secretion of different essential products, such as hormones, neurotransmitters and others in a variety of cells, including central nervous system cells. This effect could be due to a range of mechanisms, including alcohol-induced alterations in the different steps involved in intracellular transport, such as glycosylation and vesicular transport along cytoskeleton elements. Moreover, alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts developmental processes in the central nervous system. No single mechanism has proved sufficient to account for these effects, and multiple factors are likely involved. One such mechanism indicates that ethanol also perturbs protein trafficking. The purpose of this review is to summarize our understanding of how ethanol exposure alters the trafficking of proteins in different cell systems, especially in central nervous system cells (neurons and astrocytes) in adult and developing brains

    North-south gradients in plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and other components of one-carbon metabolism in Western Europe: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.

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    Different lifestyle patterns across Europe may influence plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and their relation to chronic disease. Comparison of published data on one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions is difficult due to differences in sampling procedures and analytical methods between studies. The present study aimed, to compare plasma concentrations of one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions with one laboratory performing all biochemical analyses. We performed the present study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort among 5446 presumptively healthy individuals. Quantile regression was used to compare sex-specific median concentrations between Northern (Denmark and Sweden), Central (France, Germany, The Netherlands and United Kingdom) and Southern (Greece, Spain and Italy) European regions. The lowest folate concentrations were observed in Northern Europe (men, 10路4 nmol/l; women, 10路7 nmol/l) and highest concentrations in Central Europe. Cobalamin concentrations were slightly higher in Northern Europe (men, 330 pmol/l; women, 352 pmol/l) compared with Central and Southern Europe, but did not show a clear north-south gradient. Vitamin B鈧 concentrations were highest in Northern Europe (men, 22路2 nmol/l; women, 26路0 nmol/l) and decreased towards Southern Europe (P trend< 0路001). Vitamin B(6) concentrations were highest in Central Europe in men (77路3 nmol/l) and highest in the North among women (70路4 nmol/l), with decreasing concentrations towards Southern Europe in women (P trend< 0路001). In men, concentrations of serine, glycine and sarcosine increased from the north to south. In women, sarcosine increased from Northern to Southern Europe. These findings may provide relevant information for the study of regional differences of chronic disease incidence in association with lifestyle
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