1,984 research outputs found

    Developments in the simulation of compressible inviscid and viscous flow on supercomputers

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    In anticipation of future supercomputers, finite difference codes are rapidly being extended to simulate three-dimensional compressible flow about complex configurations. Some of these developments are reviewed. The importance of computational flow visualization and diagnostic methods to three-dimensional flow simulation is also briefly discussed

    Inductive Algebras for Finite Heisenberg Groups

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    A characterization of the maximal abelian sub-algebras of matrix algebras that are normalized by the canonical representation of a finite Heisenberg group is given. Examples are constructed using a classification result for finite Heisenberg groups.Comment: 5 page

    The case for a cold dark matter cusp in Draco

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    We use a new mass modelling method, GravSphere, to measure the central dark matter density profile of the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Draco's star formation shut down long ago, making it a prime candidate for hosting a 'pristine' dark matter cusp, unaffected by stellar feedback during galaxy formation. We first test GravSphere on a suite of tidally stripped mock 'Draco'-like dwarfs. We show that we are able to correctly infer the dark matter density profile of both cusped and cored mocks within our 95% confidence intervals. While we obtain only a weak inference on the logarithmic slope of these density profiles, we are able to obtain a robust inference of the amplitude of the inner dark matter density at 150pc, ρDM(150pc)\rho_{\rm DM}(150\,{\rm pc}). We show that, combined with constraints on the density profile at larger radii, this is sufficient to distinguish a Λ\Lambda Cold Dark Matter (Λ\LambdaCDM) cusp - that has ρDM(150pc)>1.8×108Mkpc3\rho_{\rm DM}(150\,{\rm pc}) > 1.8 \times 10^8\,{\rm M}_\odot \,{\rm kpc}^{-3} - from alternative dark matter models that have lower inner densities. We then apply GravSphere to the real Draco data. We find that Draco has an inner dark matter density of ρDM(150pc)=2.40.6+0.5×108Mkpc3\rho_{\rm DM}(150\,{\rm pc}) = 2.4_{-0.6}^{+0.5} \times 10^8\,{\rm M}_\odot \,{\rm kpc}^{-3}, consistent with a Λ\LambdaCDM cusp. Using a velocity independent SIDM model, calibrated on Λ\LambdaSIDM cosmological simulations, we show that Draco's high central density gives an upper bound on the SIDM cross section of σ/m<0.57cm2g1\sigma/m < 0.57\,{\rm cm}^2\,{\rm g}^{-1} at 99% confidence. We conclude that the inner density of nearby dwarf galaxies like Draco provides a new and competitive probe of dark matter models.Comment: 19 pages, 11 Figures. Final version accepted for publication in MNRA

    Dark matter heats up in dwarf galaxies

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    Gravitational potential fluctuations driven by bursty star formation can kinematically 'heat up' dark matter at the centres of dwarf galaxies. A key prediction of such models is that, at a fixed dark matter halo mass, dwarfs with a higher stellar mass will have a lower central dark matter density. We use stellar kinematics and HI gas rotation curves to infer the inner dark matter densities of eight dwarf spheroidal and eight dwarf irregular galaxies with a wide range of star formation histories. For all galaxies, we estimate the dark matter density at a common radius of 150pc, ρDM(150pc)\rho_{\rm DM}(150\,\mathrm{pc}). We find that our sample of dwarfs falls into two distinct classes. Those that stopped forming stars over 6Gyrs ago favour central densities ρDM(150pc)>108Mkpc3\rho_{\rm DM}(150\,\mathrm{pc})>10^8\,{\rm M}_\odot\,{\rm kpc}^{-3}, consistent with cold dark matter cusps, while those with more extended star formation favour ρDM(150pc)<108Mkpc3\rho_{\rm DM}(150\,\mathrm{pc})<10^8\,{\rm M}_{\odot}\,{\rm kpc}^{-3}, consistent with shallower dark matter cores. Using abundance matching to infer pre-infall halo masses, M200M_{200}, we show that this dichotomy is in excellent agreement with models in which dark matter is heated up by bursty star formation. In particular, we find that ρDM(150pc)\rho_{\rm DM}(150\,\mathrm{pc}) steadily decreases with increasing stellar mass-to-halo mass ratio, M/M200M_*/M_{200}. Our results suggest that, to leading order, dark matter is a cold, collisionless, fluid that can be kinematically 'heated up' and moved around.Comment: 22 pages, 10 Figures. Final version accepted for publication in MNRA

    On the propagation of congestion waves in the Internet

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    Traffic modeling of communication networks such as the Internet has become a very important field of research. A number of interesting phenomena are found in measurements and traffic simulations. One of them is the propagation of congestion waves opposite to the main packet flow direction. The purpose of this paper is to model and analyze packet congestion on a given route and to provide a possible explanation for this phenomenon. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

    Computation of wing-vortex interaction in transonic flow using implicit finite difference algorithm

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    An implicit delta form finite difference algorithm for Euler equations in conservation law form was used in preliminary calculations of three dimensional wing vortex interaction. Both steady and unsteady transonic flow wing vortex interactions are computed. The computations themselves are meant to guide upcoming wind tunnel experiments of the same flow field. Various modifications to the numerical method that are intended to improve computational efficiency are also described and tested in both two and three dimensions. Combination of these methods can reduce the overall computational time by a factor of 4

    A formulation for the boundary-layer equations in general coordinates

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    This is a working paper in which a formulation is given for solving the boundary-layer equations in general body-fitted curvilinear coordinates while retaining the original Cartesian dependent variables. The solution procedure does not require that any of the coordinates be orthogonal, and much of the software developed for many Navier-Stokes schemes can be readily used. A limited number of calculations has been undertaken to validate the approach

    Bad neighbors? Niche overlap and asymmetric competition between native and Lessepsian limpets in the Eastern Mediterranean rocky intertidal.

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    Abstract The Eastern Mediterranean Sea hosts more non-indigenous species than any other marine region, yet their impacts on the native biota remain poorly understood. Focusing on mollusks from the Israeli rocky intertidal, we explored the hypothesis that this abiotically harsh habitat supports a limited trait diversity, and thus may promote niche overlap and competition between native and non-indigenous species. Indeed, native and non-indigenous assemblage components often had a highly similar trait composition, caused by functionally similar native (Patella caerulea) and non-indigenous (Cellana rota) limpets. Body size of P. caerulea decreased with increasing C. rota prevalence, but not vice versa, indicating potential asymmetric competition. Although both species have coexisted in Israel for >15 years, a rapid 'replacement' of native limpets by C. rota has been reported for a thermally polluted site, suggesting that competition and regionally rapid climate-related seawater warming might interact to progressively erode native limpet performance along the Israeli coast

    Surgery of pulmonary aspergillomas in immunocompromised patients

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    Introduction: Pulmonary aspergillosis is a devastating complication in immunocompromised patients. Timing of surgery is controversial and depends on the patients' general condition