84 research outputs found

    9-PAHSA displays a weak anti-inflammatory potential mediated by specific antagonism of chemokine G protein-coupled receptors

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    Introduction: 9-PAHSA belongs to a class of endogenous mammalian bioactive lipids, fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFA), that are present in circulation at nanomolar concentrations in mice and humans. Published preclinical data suggest beneficial effects of 9-PAHSA treatment on glucose metabolism as well as modulation of immune function. However, receptor molecules with high affinity towards these lipids have not been identified so far.Methods: In a broad screen of a panel of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) we discovered that 9-PAHSA displays antagonist activity with an IC50 in the micromolar range on selected chemokine receptors, namely, CCR6, CCR7, CXCR4, and CXCR5. The potential immunomodulatory activities in a human cellular model of innate immunity were then investigated.Results and discussion: In our in vitro experiments, a weak anti-inflammatory potential for high concentrations of 9-PAHSA (10–100 µM) could be detected, as treatment reduced the LPS-induced secretion of certain chemokines, such as CXCL10, MIP-1 beta and MCP. Regarding metabolic effects, we re-investigated 9-PAHSA on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in vitro and in mice confirming conclusions from our earlier study that FAHFAs lack glucoregulatory activity following an acute treatment. In conclusion, the specific interactions with a subset of chemokine receptors may contribute to weak anti-inflammatory properties of 9-PAHSA, but further studies are needed to confirm its in anti-inflammatory potential in vivo

    Cost-effectiveness of financial incentives to promote adherence to depot antipsychotic medication: economic evaluation of a cluster-randomised controlled trial

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    Background: Offering a modest financial incentive to people with psychosis can promote adherence to depot antipsychotic medication, but the cost-effectiveness of this approach has not been examined. Methods: Economic evaluation within a pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial. 141 patients under the care of 73 teams (clusters) were randomised to intervention or control; 138 patients with diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizo-affective disorder or bipolar disorder participated. Intervention participants received £15 per depot injection over 12 months, additional to usual acute, mental and community primary health services. The control group received usual health services. Main outcome measures: incremental cost per 20% increase in adherence to depot antipsychotic medication; incremental cost of ‘good’ adherence (defined as taking at least 95% of the prescribed number of depot medications over the intervention period). Findings: Economic and outcome data for baseline and 12-month follow-up were available for 117 participants. The adjusted difference in adherence between groups was 12.2% (73.4% control vs. 85.6% intervention); the adjusted costs difference was £598 (95% CI -£4 533, £5 730). The extra cost per patient to increase adherence to depot medications by 20% was £982 (95% CI -£8 020, £14 000). The extra cost per patient of achieving 'good' adherence was £2 950 (CI -£19 400, £27 800). Probability of cost-effectiveness exceeded 97.5%at willingness-to-pay values of £14 000 for a 20% increase in adherence and £27 800 for good adherence. Interpretation: Offering a modest financial incentive to people with psychosis is cost-effective in promoting adherence to depot antipsychotic medication. Direct healthcare costs (including costs of the financial incentive) are unlikely to be increased by this intervention. Trial Registration: ISRCTN.com 7776928

    p53 and p16 expression profiles in vulvar cancer:a translational analysis by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie Chemo and Radiotherapy in Epithelial Vulvar Cancer study group

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    Background: There are 2 known pathways for tumorigenesis of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma—a human papillomavirus–dependent pathway characterized by p16 overexpression and a human papillomavirus–independent pathway linked to lichen sclerosus, characterized by TP53 mutation. A correlation of human papillomavirus dependency with a favorable prognosis has been proposed. Objective: The objective of the study was to further understand the role of human papillomavirus and p53 status in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and characterize its clinical relevance. Study Design: The Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynaecological Oncology Chemo and Radiotherapy in Epithelial Vulvar Cancer-1 study is a retrospective cohort study of 1618 patients with primary vulvar squamous cell carcinoma Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique stage ≥1B treated at 29 gynecologic cancer centers in Germany between 1998 and 2008. For this translational substudy, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue was collected. A tissue microarray was constructed (n=652 samples); p16 and p53 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Human papillomavirus status and subtype were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. Results: p16 immunohistochemistry was positive in 166 of 550 tumors (30.2%); p53 staining in 187 of 597 tumors (31.3%). Only tumors with available information regarding p16 and p53 immunohistochemistry and without p53 silent expression pattern were further analyzed (n=411); 3 groups were defined: p53+ (n=163), p16+/p53− (n=132), and p16−/p53− (n=116). Human papillomavirus DNA was detected in 85.6% of p16+/p53− tumors; human papillomavirus-16 was the most common subtype (86.3%). Patients with p16+ tumors were younger (64 vs 72 years for p53+, respectively, 69 years for p16−/p53− tumors; P<.0001) and showed lower rates of lymph-node involvement (28.0% vs 42.3% for p53+, respectively, 30.2% for p16−/p53− tumors; P=.050). Notably, 2-year-disease-free and overall survival rates were significantly different among the groups: disease-free survival, 47.1% (p53+), 60.2% (p16−/p53−), and 63.9% (p16+/p53−) (P<.001); overall survival, 70.4% (p53+), 75.4% (p16−/p53−), and 82.5% (p16+/p53−) (P=.002). In multivariate analysis, the p16+/p53− phenotype showed a consistently improved prognosis compared with the other groups (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.44–0.99; P=.042). Conclusion: p16 overexpression is associated with an improved prognosis whereas p53 positivity is linked to an adverse outcome. Our data support the hypothesis of a clinically relevant third subgroup of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma with a p53−/p16− phenotype showing an intermediate prognosis that needs to be further characterized

    MondoA drives malignancy in B-ALL through enhanced adaptation to metabolic stress.

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    peer reviewedCancer cells are in most instances characterized by rapid proliferation and uncontrolled cell division. Hence, they must adapt to proliferation-induced metabolic stress through intrinsic or acquired antimetabolic stress responses to maintain homeostasis and survival. One mechanism to achieve this is reprogramming gene expression in a metabolism-dependent manner. MondoA (also known as Myc-associated factor X-like protein X-interacting protein [MLXIP]), a member of the MYC interactome, has been described as an example of such a metabolic sensor. However, the role of MondoA in malignancy is not fully understood and the underlying mechanism in metabolic responses remains elusive. By assessing patient data sets, we found that MondoA overexpression is associated with worse survival in pediatric common acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; B-precursor ALL [B-ALL]). Using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) and RNA-interference approaches, we observed that MondoA depletion reduces the transformational capacity of B-ALL cells in vitro and dramatically inhibits malignant potential in an in vivo mouse model. Interestingly, reduced expression of MondoA in patient data sets correlated with enrichment in metabolic pathways. The loss of MondoA correlated with increased tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. Mechanistically, MondoA senses metabolic stress in B-ALL cells by restricting oxidative phosphorylation through reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. Glutamine starvation conditions greatly enhance this effect and highlight the inability to mitigate metabolic stress upon loss of MondoA in B-ALL. Our findings give novel insight into the function of MondoA in pediatric B-ALL and support the notion that MondoA inhibition in this entity offers a therapeutic opportunity and should be further explored

    Targeting Vascular NADPH Oxidase 1 Blocks Tumor Angiogenesis through a PPARα Mediated Mechanism

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    Reactive oxygen species, ROS, are regulators of endothelial cell migration, proliferation and survival, events critically involved in angiogenesis. Different isoforms of ROS-generating NOX enzymes are expressed in the vasculature and provide distinct signaling cues through differential localization and activation. We show that mice deficient in NOX1, but not NOX2 or NOX4, have impaired angiogenesis. NOX1 expression and activity is increased in primary mouse and human endothelial cells upon angiogenic stimulation. NOX1 silencing decreases endothelial cell migration and tube-like structure formation, through the inhibition of PPARα, a regulator of NF-κB. Administration of a novel NOX-specific inhibitor reduced angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo in a PPARα dependent manner. In conclusion, vascular NOX1 is a critical mediator of angiogenesis and an attractive target for anti-angiogenic therapies

    Global assessment of marine plastic exposure risk for oceanic birds

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    Plastic pollution is distributed patchily around the world’s oceans. Likewise, marine organisms that are vulnerable to plastic ingestion or entanglement have uneven distributions. Understanding where wildlife encounters plastic is crucial for targeting research and mitigation. Oceanic seabirds, particularly petrels, frequently ingest plastic, are highly threatened, and cover vast distances during foraging and migration. However, the spatial overlap between petrels and plastics is poorly understood. Here we combine marine plastic density estimates with individual movement data for 7137 birds of 77 petrel species to estimate relative exposure risk. We identify high exposure risk areas in the Mediterranean and Black seas, and the northeast Pacific, northwest Pacific, South Atlantic and southwest Indian oceans. Plastic exposure risk varies greatly among species and populations, and between breeding and non-breeding seasons. Exposure risk is disproportionately high for Threatened species. Outside the Mediterranean and Black seas, exposure risk is highest in the high seas and Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of the USA, Japan, and the UK. Birds generally had higher plastic exposure risk outside the EEZ of the country where they breed. We identify conservation and research priorities, and highlight that international collaboration is key to addressing the impacts of marine plastic on wide-ranging species

    Peri-operative red blood cell transfusion in neonates and infants: NEonate and Children audiT of Anaesthesia pRactice IN Europe: A prospective European multicentre observational study

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    BACKGROUND: Little is known about current clinical practice concerning peri-operative red blood cell transfusion in neonates and small infants. Guidelines suggest transfusions based on haemoglobin thresholds ranging from 8.5 to 12 g dl-1, distinguishing between children from birth to day 7 (week 1), from day 8 to day 14 (week 2) or from day 15 (≥week 3) onwards. OBJECTIVE: To observe peri-operative red blood cell transfusion practice according to guidelines in relation to patient outcome. DESIGN: A multicentre observational study. SETTING: The NEonate-Children sTudy of Anaesthesia pRactice IN Europe (NECTARINE) trial recruited patients up to 60 weeks' postmenstrual age undergoing anaesthesia for surgical or diagnostic procedures from 165 centres in 31 European countries between March 2016 and January 2017. PATIENTS: The data included 5609 patients undergoing 6542 procedures. Inclusion criteria was a peri-operative red blood cell transfusion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary endpoint was the haemoglobin level triggering a transfusion for neonates in week 1, week 2 and week 3. Secondary endpoints were transfusion volumes, 'delta haemoglobin' (preprocedure - transfusion-triggering) and 30-day and 90-day morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Peri-operative red blood cell transfusions were recorded during 447 procedures (6.9%). The median haemoglobin levels triggering a transfusion were 9.6 [IQR 8.7 to 10.9] g dl-1 for neonates in week 1, 9.6 [7.7 to 10.4] g dl-1 in week 2 and 8.0 [7.3 to 9.0] g dl-1 in week 3. The median transfusion volume was 17.1 [11.1 to 26.4] ml kg-1 with a median delta haemoglobin of 1.8 [0.0 to 3.6] g dl-1. Thirty-day morbidity was 47.8% with an overall mortality of 11.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate lower transfusion-triggering haemoglobin thresholds in clinical practice than suggested by current guidelines. The high morbidity and mortality of this NECTARINE sub-cohort calls for investigative action and evidence-based guidelines addressing peri-operative red blood cell transfusions strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02350348
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