45 research outputs found

    The European Green Paper on Urban Mobility

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    The 2006 mid-term review of the European Transport White Paper heralded plans for a new European Green Paper on Urban Transport in order to “identify potential European added value to action at local level” (CEC, 2006: p14).1 After a 5-month consultation process between January and June 2007 with European, national, regional and local stakeholders, the Green Paper on Urban Transport was published in September 2007 (CEC, 2007). The result is a document which sets out a series of questions and issues, rather than any new policy instruments or solutions. It provides little clarity about the precise future role of the European Union in urban mobility policy, and the potential European added value

    Trends in Transport Intensity across Europe

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    Transport energy use and transport volumes have closely followed trends in economic activity over recent decades. This is not the case however for total energy consumption (across all sectors of the economy), which is not now increasing in many countries even though economic growth is still taking place. Some kind of decoupling has occurred. If this decoupling were to take place in the transport sector, it would present opportunities to reduce the consumption of energy and other resources without reducing economic competitiveness. Decoupling would also offer opportunities for the reduction of congestion and transport emissions. Consequently, there is increasing interest in how decoupling can occur. Although the decoupling of economic activity and total energy consumption has been reported for a number of European countries, the extent to which transport demand and economy activity has been decoupled has not been examined in so much detail. Using international statistical sources for all European countries and detailed data for the UK, this paper explores the extent to which transport demand is currently linked with economic indicators (such as Gross Domestic Product and Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare) and examines whether this link has changed over time. The paper contributes to understanding about the definition of transport intensity and the relationships between transport demand and economic activity in Europ

    A Critical Deconstruction of the Concept of Transit Oriented Development (TOD)

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    The concept of Transit-Oriented Development, or TOD, has generated much interest in Europe over the last decade. Because the term “TOD” originated in the United States, this model is often assumed to be a recent import from North American cities. This paper examines how planning policies in three European capital city-regions – Amsterdam, Stockholm and Vienna – have been shaped by the ideas and principles underlying TOD since the Second World War. All three case studies are located in countries with mature systems of spatial planning: the Netherlands (Western Europe), Sweden (Northern Europe), and Austria (Central Europe). The paper illustrates that TOD, albeit called by other names or not named at all in policy, has been an intrinsic principle of planning in Austria, the Netherlands, and Sweden and in their respective capitals for decades. Far from being a recent North American invention, TOD has its roots in Europe and dates back many decades. Clearly, the enthusiasm with which TOD in its recent embodiment has been received in the US and Canada has done much to highlight and promote the concept over recent decades in Europe

    Celebrating Spatial Planning at TU Delft 2008-2019:

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    The Department of Urbanism of the TU Delft is organised in five sections: Spatial Planning & Strategy (SPS), Urban Design, Environmental Modelling, Urban Studies, and Landscape Architecture. SPS has three distinct and complementary pillars: (i) Spatial Planning & Strategy, (ii) Regional Design and Planning, and (iii) International Urbanisation & Development Planning. Spatial Planning at TU Delft has an evident, but unique relationship with spatial design, focusing on the development and transformation of spatial form, composition, patterns, structures, and networks. Spatial Planning, together with Design and Technology, form the key pillars to Urbanism at Delft University of Technology. This integrative approach to urbanism has a long history at TU Delft and makes the University’s academic profile in spatial planning highly distinctive and also highly ranked. All over the world, cities and regions are challenged by the risks and opportunities associated with accelerating challenges arising from migration, climate change, the fourth industrial revolution, globalisation, rising inequality, and political instability. They face urgent questions with respect to sustainable growth and transformation that can only be tackled in an interdisciplinary integrative way that promotes social, economic, and environmental sustainability and spatial justice. In other words, they are not only concerned with what to do (i.e. the objectives of spatial planning) but also with how to do it (i.e. processes of democratic citizen engagement and governance). Over recent decades, spatial planning, policy-making and territorial governance have changed drastically. First, trends of deregulation and decentralisation have had a large impact on traditionally strong spatial planning authorities, such as national governments and national bodies of planning. They have repositioned themselves and gotten new responsibilities, but regional and local planning authorities have had to adapt as well. Additionally, at least in the European Union, private stakeholders and civil society have been given much more room to co-create spatial plans and interventions with those planning authorities. Spatial planning has developed into an inter- and transdisciplinary activity, especially in advanced economies. Secondly, vision and strategy-making have become mainstream in spatial planning with an increased understanding of the complex, uncertain, networked, and dynamic nature of cities and regions. Planning for resilience and sustainability, for organic growth, for flexibility, and for adaptivity means that planning has become a process of intensive interaction, negotiation, and communication between involved stakeholders, looking for shared visions and strategies to go forward. Such a process is helped by diverse tools and ways of approaching the tasks at hand, with the formulation of alternative spatial scenarios and by vision and strategy-making. These tools contribute to a new planning paradigm that focuses on communication and consensus-seeking in collaborative decision-making processes. This has increased the need for urbanism-planning professionals who can lead, guide, facilitate, mediate, manage, and steer those processes, across a variety of spatial scales, from neighbourhood to city-region and beyond. Thirdly, spatial planning has become a more digitised and digitally supported process in many ways. In several places, spatial planning processes are based on E-participation and innovative ways of citizen engagement. Urban (big) data and sophisticated 2D and 3D analysis, visualisation, modelling, and decision-making tools are providing urbanism professionals with more input on the city than ever before, making urban policy-making processes potentially more transparent, explicit, and democratic, and strongly underpinned and supported by actual and dynamic data that allows for evidence-based decision- making. The changes within the professional field of spatial planning come with many questions that can be researched at the University , focusing on issues of: fairness, spatial justice, and democracy building; the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders in spatial development processes, including the roles and values of planners spatial decision-making processes and how they are informed by socio-spatial data (analysis). SPS contributes to teaching and research on these questions and contributes to the understanding of theoretical perspectives on the nature, scope, and effects of spatial planning. Our section focuses on (i) international and European territorial governance and policy-making, including their potential for democracy building, (ii) contemporary methods of spatial planning, spatial planning instruments, and spatial planning systems, (iii) territorial evidence and impact assessment. By doing so, the Section contributes to theories of spatial planning and builds on SPS’s strong tradition of international comparative studies. TU Delft is the leading institution in the Netherlands for research and education on Urbanism. It has an established track record of excellence in research, teaching, and learning, confirmed by external assessments

    Dutch Planning Policy: The Resurgence of TOD

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    This article examines the transfer of knowledge and information in planning processes, particularly those related to Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) in the metropolitan region of Amsterdam. The authors conclude that knowledge transfers are often highly dependent on the actions of individuals, and that the process of knowledge exchange is frequently uncoordinated and fragmented. Planning ideas from elsewhere often provide inspiration for policy makers but these do not often lead to changes in the formulation of policy or practice